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Terms in this set (25)
What are the ordinate and the abscissa? Be able to identify where they are on a graph.
Ordinate: the vertical or y-axis that plots the dependent measure and values include labels as frequency of responses, percentage of intervals, and number of correct responses.
Abscissa: the horizontal or x-axis plots data over time values or labels include sessions days weeks or months.
What is a line graph? What is the crucial feature to note on a line graph? Also what is an advantage of the line graph? Finally what is an important feature of a line graph?
A line graph is the most common method of plotting data. Consists of noting day-by-day or session-by-session performance of the subject over time. Data points are plotted and connected in each phase to show a line.
An advantage is that one can immediately determine how the subject is performing at a glance.
An important feature; line graphs facilitate the evaluation of various characteristics of the data as they relate to visual inspection.
What is a cumulative graph? What is plotted on a cumulative graph? What sort of slope represents little or no change on a cumulative graph? What sort of slope represents more change?
Cumulative graph consists of noting the level of performance of the subject over time in an additive fashion. The accumulative total for all sessions or days is plotted on a cumulative graph, for example frequency of responding as a function of time.
A low slope or no slope would signify little or no change. A steeper slope would signify more change.
What is a cumulative graph or cumulative record better at portraying graphically than a line graph?
Cumulative graphs or cumulative records are better at conveying a large plot of the frequency of behavior over a period of time.
Line graphs could not show this because the time periods of the investigation are not divided into discrete sessions.
What is a bar graph? What is an advantage of a bar graph? What is not revealed in bar graphs and what can that do to interpretation (see also figure 13.8)?
A bar graph presents the data in vertical or occasionally horizontal columns to represent performance under different conditions. Each bar shows the mean or average level of performance for separate phases.
Advantage: they represent the results in one of the easiest formats to interpret.
Fluctuations in performance trends and information about duration of the phases are not revealed. Less information is shown with this kind of graph and this can misrepresent the data.
What does Kazdin mean when he says "Graphs are not neutral" (read the entire first paragraph in this section but then focus on the last few sentences of that paragraph)?
We researchers summarize data there are omissions of information. The goal of graphing data is to give as much information to show how they drew inferences and what the data show. But it is possible to distort data in graphs to lean towards one way than another.
In single-case research all the data should be represented in the graph.
How might audience impact data presentations?
Presenting the information to other researchers, they are more likely to understand and speculate the data. But the regular shmegualr consumer may not understand the data fully for consumers it is more helpful to give them the bottom line than to provide all the data available. But the omission of data when presenting to the consumer distorts the information.
"The scientific usage of the word data means 'the results of measurement usually in quantified form'". Now when you use the word data you need to realize that the word data is the plural form. It means more than one. The singular form is datum. So you should write "the data are" not "the data is". Rather it would be correct to write "the datum is". This is a hot topic in behavior analysis. Whether it should be or not is irrelevant because you are not going to change the field right now. However you will are a part of that field and will be judged as such. Our language is a technical one and using "data is" is a surefire way to make people think you do not really now what you are talking about and will not be precise in your language.
Data- plural Datum- singular
CHH go over parts of graph several of which are review from Kazdin (line graph dependent variable independent variable horizontal axis and vertical axis). Some others however are new. What are condition change lines and how can they be drawn note that CHH provides suggestions for when each should be used which you should also provide?
Condition change lines should be placed after the data point representing the last measure prior to the change in conditions signified by the line and before the data point representing the first measure obtained after the change in procedure.
Vertical lines extending upward from the horizontal axis indicate changes in the treatment or experimental procedures.
Change lines can be drawn to a height equal to the height of the vertical axis helps the viewer estimate the value of data points near the top of the vertical axis range. Can be drawn with either solid or
Solid and dashed lines should be use to distinguish major changes and minor changes.
What two facts do data points represent?
A quantifiable measure of the target behavior recorded during a given observation period. The time and/or experimental conditions under which that particular measurement was conducted.
When would a graph have more than one data path? That is what do they show? If presented with a series of graphs with two data paths be able to identify which graphs should have two data paths versus which should not.
A graph would have more one data point when you need to show a behavior change and complex behaviors.
They are used to show: Two or more dimensions of the same behavior.
Two or more different behaviors.
The same behavior under different and alternating experimental conditions.
Changes in target behavior relative to the changing values of an independent variable.
The behavior of two or more participants.
Graphs that should have two data points are line graphs.
CHH go over each of the different types of graphs. Make sure you look at your answers from the Kazdin chapter above and review those answers while reading these sections. It will help you study and will ensure that you have checked your answers.
Bar Graph: or histogram. Summarizes data. The bar graph does not have distinct data points representing successive response measures through time. Takes a variety of forms to allow quick and easy comparisons of performance across participants and conditions. Two major functions; display and compare common underlying dimension by x-axis. Gives visual summary of performance of a participant or group during the different conditions of an experiment.
Line graph: or frequency polygon, most common, a two-dimensional area formed by the intersection of two perpendicular line. Each point shows the level of some quantifiable dimension of the target behavior in relation to specified point in time and environmental condition when the measure was taken.
Cumulative record: enables a subject to actually draw its down graph. Shows the number of responses on the ordinate against time on the abscissa. Standard celebration chart: provides a standardized means of charting and analyzing how frequency of behavior changes over time.
What is an equal interval graph?
It is the most common practice to mark the vertical axis with an equal interval scale. This is the equal distance on the axis represents equal amounts of behavior. The distance between any two consecutive points on each axis is always the same.
What is a semi-logarithmic chart? Be able to recognize the difference between an equal interval graph and semi-logarithmic graph (hint - it requires reading the values on the axis). The Standard Celeration Chart is a specific type of semi-logarithmic chart. What tell tale sign would you see on the y-axis that would help you know if you were looking at a Standard Celeration Chart? What are the four options for the x-axis?
Semi-logarithmic chart: graphs on which one axis is scaled proportionally. All behavior changes of equal proportions are shown by equal vertical distances on the vertical axis or y axis. (equal interval is on the x-axis)
Standard celebration chart: provides a standardized means of charting and analyzing how frequency of behavior changes over time. Sign you are looking at a celebration chart- the y-axis has six X10 cycles on the vertical axis.
Four options: Daily chart Weekly chart Monthly chart Yearly chart
What is a scatterplot? What do scatterplots reveal?
Scatterplots: a graphic display that shows the relative distribution of individual measures in a data set with respect to the variables depicted by the x and y axes the data points are unconnected. Shows changes in the value of the variable depicted by one axis correlate with changes in the value of the variable represented by the other axis.
What were 3 problems with the previously published articles on graphing (i.e. Carr & Burcholder Dixon et al.)?
Both articles taught the user to add phase lines using the drawing tools.
The problem with this is for clinician who frequently updates graphs with new data manually inserted lines do not move when new data are added to graphs and might results in graphs with phase lines in the incorrect place.
The updated article for Excel 2007 the authors did not describe how to create bar graphs. Textual instruction cannot give a user feedback on their performance. Using an article to help graph can be frustrating. A computer based tutorial may solve that problem.
What three dimensions of applied behavior analysis are directly linked to visual analysis of data and how?
Analytic refers to a convincing demonstration of an experimental effect. This is the preferred medium for all analysis of data occurs through graphs.
Effective conveys the requirement for the intervention to produce a particular and meaningful magnitude of behavior change.
Generality: the behavior persists across time environments and operant responses within a class.
What is the result of not adhering to the essential structures of line graphs?
Distorted exaggerated imprecise information.
Seventy-two percent of the graphs reviewed scaled the horizontal axis with a non-time unit (e.g. sessions trials no label). The authors make a very strong statement about the implications of this. What does the author suggest is the result of using non-time units?
By labeling the horizontal axis with sessions or trial, the line graph technically no longer qualified as a time series graphic and markedly influences visual analysis.
What are the three categories of errors affecting visual analysis? Using table 4.1 identify the conditions that lead to those three categories.
Three categories of errors affecting visual analysis: Labeling error, false equality, and non-representative data.
Conditions that lead to errors: Session practice- problem when x-axis has "sessions" as the label and data graphed consecutively and contiguously.
Session duration reported as a time unit in text and...
Held consistent for the duration of the study- labeling error. Not held consistent-labeling error and false.
Sessions graphed with respect to time and...
Occur consecutively in time- labeling error. Occur consecutively in time but do not occur every day- labeling error and non-representative data. Do not occur consecutively in time- labeling error and non-representative data.
Session duration not reported as a time unit and...The experiment lasts for an unknown duration of time- labeling error, false equality, and non-representative data
Published recommendations suggest a ratio of vertical to horizontal axis ranges of 5:8 to 2:3 with a maximum of 3:4. What is the standardizing and protecting effect that those ratios provide?
The standardizing and protecting effect that those ratios provide: 63, 66, and 75% size differential of height to width presents a standardizing and protective effect. This ensures that the graphs are proportional, graphically legible, and protects against misleading graphical information.
What are the three advantageous characteristics of single-case design graphs based on the guidelines for authors published by JABA?
The lines connecting successive data markers should closely approach but not tough the data marker. The lines connecting data markers should not cross phase change lines. The zero point on the y-axis should appear slightly above the x-axis
Figure 1 lists the 9 features that have been noted as being derived from published sources. All of these are fair game. You may be presented with a graph and asked to identify which of the 9 are not present or you may be asked to list them.
look at diagram
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