The nurse is preparing to boost a client up in bed and instructs the client to use the overbed trapeze. Which risk factor for pressure ulcer development is the nurse reducing by instructing the client to move in this manner?
Friction, impaired circulation, localized pressure, and shearing forces are all risk factors of pressure ulcer development; trapeze use reduces shearing forces. Shearing forces (opposing forces that cause layers of skin to move over each other, stretching and tearing capillaries and, eventually, resulting in necrosis) increase the risk of pressure ulcer development. They can occur as clients slide down in bed or are pulled up in bed. Subcutaneous skin layers adhere to the sheets while deeper layers, muscle, and bone slide in the direction of movement. To reduce shearing forces, the nurse should instruct the client to use an overbed trapeze, place a draw sheet under the client to move the client up in bed, and keep the head of the bed no higher than 30 degrees.