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Geology Vocabulary (8th Grade)
Terms in this set (33)
The branch of geology that studies rock layers.
Layers of rock.
Law of Superposition
Rule which states that rock layers form horizontally, with the oldest rock layer on the bottom.
The study of the Earth's physical structures, processes, and how it formed.
When a layer of rock is bent due to pressure or high temperature.
When pressure or stress fractures a rock.
Weathering and Erosion
When rock is broken down and moved.
Intrusion of Magma
When melted rock is pushed up into spaces within an existing rock layer.
Evidence in rock of the presence of a plant or animal from an earlier geological time.
Fossil of a species that lived for a short period of time, but were widespread geographically.
Time period which includes 90% of Earth's geologic history.
Time period during which life on Earth moved on to land.
Time period during which dinosaurs existed on Earth.
Earth's current time period.
The outermost layer of the Earth.
The hottest layer of the Earth.
The rigid, outer part of Earth consisting of the crust and upper mantle, which is broken into plates.
The part of the mantle which is so hot that rocks flow like liquid (magma).
Large segments of continental and oceanic crust that move.
Earth's most recent supercontinent.
Plate Tectonic Theory
Theory which states that the Earth's crust is broken into large segments which move over the asthenosphere.
Created when parts of the Earth's crust move against each other, build up pressure, then break and release that pressure.
Created when oceanic crust subducts, melts, and creates pockets of magma which rise to the surface.
Created when an underwater earthquake makes the ocean water rise, travel to shore, and increase in height to form a wall of water.
Caused when magma upwells in the ocean, pushes old oceanic crust away, cools, and becomes new oceanic crust.
Scientist who first proposed the Plate Tectonic Theory
Scientist who first proposed the idea of seafloor spreading.
When one tectonic plate moves under another one.
Type of plate boundary where tectonic plates move towards each other.
Type of plate boundary where tectonic plates move away from each other.
Type of plate boundary where tectonic plates move side to side against each other.
An underwater mountain chain created when magma upwells at a divergent plate boundary.
An underwater valley created when oceanic crust subducts under continental crust, causing a bend in both crusts.
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