Which countries were the Allied Powers of World War I?
1. Great Britain 2. France 3. Russia 4. United States 5. Japan 6. Italy
What did World War I turn into along France?
What was the Western Front?
battlefields along France and Germany
What was Germany's Schlieffen Plan?
1. attacking and defeating France in the West quickly 2. rushing east to fight Russia
Why did Germany choose to fight France first?
Russia lagged behind in railroad construction which would take them longer to gather supplies
Who won the Battle of the Marne River?
After France won the Battle of the Marne River, what did Russia do?
invaded Germany forcing Germany to fight a two front war
What did soldiers do to protect themselves from enemy fire?
What was No Man's Land?
battlefield between the opposing trenches
What were the new military weapons of World War I?
1. poison gas 2. machine gun 3. tanks 4. submarines
What was the peak on the battle of Western Front in 1916?
Battle of the Somme each side lost over 300,000 soldiers
What was the Eastern Front?
battlefields along Russia and Germany
Was Russia more powerful than Austria?
Was Russia more powerful than Germany?
What was Russia main advantage?
large population of soldiers
By 1916, how did Russia lack of industry affect them?
soldiers were short on food, ammunition, and supplies
Why were the Allies unable to get supplies to the Russian soldiers?
What was introduced in World War I that was used to spy the opposition?
What did Germany introduce in 1917?
unrestricted submarine warfare
What was unrestricted submarine warfare?
Germany would sink any ship without warning in the waters surrounding Great Britain
What was the goal of unrestricted submarine warfare?
Germany would starve Great Britain into defeat before the United States could mobilize for war
What was the Zimmerman Note of 1917?
Germany promised to help Mexico conquer some of its land back from the United States if they support Germany's war efforts
What were the 5 reasons that the United States entered World War I?
1. unrestricted submarine warfare 2. allied propaganda 3. hostility towards Germany for invading Belgium 4. American economic interests 5. Zimmerman Note threatening national security
What does it mean when World War I becomes a total war?
countries devoted all of their resources to the war effort
How did nations make World War I a total war?
1. factories produced war supplies 2. citizen was put to work 3. rationing food for soldiers 4. suppressed antiwar activity 5. censored news about the war 6. used propaganda to support the war
What did women do to support World War I?
1. replaced men in the factories 2. worked on the front lines as nurses
What did Russia do in 1917 as a result to a shortage of food and supplies?
surrendered to Germany
What was the Treaty of Brest-LItovsk?
Russia surrendering to Germany
What did Russia's withdrawal from the war allow Germany to do?
mobilize all of its forces to the Western Front
What happened that caused Germany to loose at the Second Battle of the Marne River even though Russia withdrew from the war?
United States entered the war
What happened in 1918 after the United States entered World War I?
Germany surrendered to the Allies ending World War I
Who were the Big Four leaders at the Treaty of Versailles in 1919?
1. Woodrow Wilson - United States 2. George Clemenceau - France 3. David Lloyd George - Great Britain 4. Vittorio Orlando - Italy
What were Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points?
his expectations for lasting world peace
What were Wilson's first four points?
1. end to secret treaties 2. freedom of the seas 3. free trade 4. reduced national armies and navies
What was Wilson's fifth point?
adjustment of colonial claims
What did Wilson's points 6-13 suggest?
changing borders and creating new nations
What did Wilson's 14th point suggest?
general association of nations to protect small nations (League of Nations)
What were the effects of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany?
1. placed severe restrictions on Germany's military 2. Germany had to pay reparations to the Allies 3. All German territories in Africa and the Pacific would be governed by the Allies 4. war-guilt clause
What was the War-Guilt Clause?
sole responsibility of war on Germany
What countries was the Austrian-Hungarian empire broken up into?
1. Czechoslovakia 2. Austria 3. Hungary 4. Yugoslavia
What countries was the Ottoman Empire broken up into under British control?
1. Palestine 2. Iraq 3. Transjordan
What countries did France control from the Ottoman Empire?
1. Syria 2. Lebanon
In Russia, which countries became independent nations after World War I?
1. Finland 2. Estonia 3. Latvia 4. Lithuania
How did the United States Congress react to the Treaty of Versailles?
Congress rejected Wilson's fourteen points
Why did Congress reject Wilson's fourteen points?
Congress believed that the America's best chance for peace was staying out of European affairs
Which countries believed they gained less territory at the end of World War I?
Japan and Italy
Why was the League of Nations unable to negotiate peace with world powers?
United States did not join the League of Nations
What decision did the United States make that paved the way for World War II?
follow a policy of isolationism and not join the League of Nations