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foodborne illness

an illness caused by eating contaminated food or beverage

foodborne-illness outbreak

the occurence of 2 or more cases of a similar illness resulting fron eating a common food

costs of a foodborne illness to an establishment

lose customers & sales, lose prestige & reputation, lawsuits resulting in legal fees, increased incurance premiums

populations at high risk for foodborne illness

elderly, infants/pre-school age children, pregnant women, people taking certain medications, perople who are seriously ill

biological, chemical, & physical

3 categories of potential hazards to food saftey (alphabetical order)


category of potential hazards to food safety (1 of the 3) that poses the greatest threat

cross-contamination; (poor) personal hygiene; time-temp. abuse

3 common factors that are responsible for foodborne illness (cpt)

time-temp. abuse

any time food has been allowed to remian too long @ temps favorable to the growth of foodborne microorganisms


occurs when microorganisms are transferred from one surface or food to another

flow of food

path food takes from purchasing to receiving all the way to serving

FDA Food code

service based reference for retail food establishments or how to prevent foodborne illness


prescence of harmful substances in food


illness-causing microorganism


single-celled living microorganisms that can spoil food & cause fooborne illnesses


the smallest of the microbial food contaminants


microorganism that needs to live in a host organism to survive


range in size, from microscopic, single-celled organisms to very large, multicellular organisms


measure of a food's acidity or alkality


types of fungus that cause food spoilage

Food (Source)


Acidity (Level/ (Slightly acidic)



conditions favorable for bacteria to grow & reproduce

(Room) Temperature

first T in FAT TOM

(Adequate) Time

second T in FAT TOM





temp. danger zone

the temp. range b/t 41 and 135 degrees F within which foodborne microorganisms grow


type of fungus that causes food spoilage

foodborne infection

result of a person eating food containing PATHOGENS, which then grow in the intestines and cause illness

foodborne intoxication

result of a person eating food containing TOXINS that cause an illness (eating posion food)

foodborne toxin-mediated infection

result of a person eating food contaminated w/ bacteria that grows in body from toxins

TCS foods

foods that need time & temp. control for safety


the largest threat to food safety comes from microorganisms:
(the leading cause of foodborne illness)

e. coli

caused by bacteria that lives in the intestines of cattle (ground beef)

hepatitis A

shellfish & salads are possible sources for:

Vibrio spp.

oysters are commonly associated w/ an outbreak of


cannot be seen, smelled, or tasted in food

41 and 135 degrees F

temperature range for the temp. danger zone (range in which most foodborne microorganisms grow well)


of the 3 foodborne illnesses (infections, intoxications, toxin-mediated infections), which one do symptoms not appear immediately


of the 3 foodborne illnesses (infections, intoxications, toxin-mediated infections), which one do symptoms appear within a few hours


spores are commonly found in:
(& can contaminate food grown there)


can resist heat, allowingit to survive cooking temps.


salmonellosis and shigellosis are 2 examples of


one type of intoxication (canned foods)


found naturally in air, soil, plants, water, & some food


mold, yeast, and mushrooms are 3 examples of


yeast spoilage may produce a smell or taste of


food that's been spoiled by yeast should be


due to the extreme risk posed by (fish), it should not be served unless the chef has been licensed to prepare it

41 degrees F

the temp, fish should be at delivery

thawed & refrozen

refuse any product that's been (2 words)

scromboid & ciguatera (fish poisoning)

the 2 types of fish toxin illnesses

histamine poisoning

scromboid poisoning is also known as

scromboid poisoning

cannot be destroyed by freezing, cooking, smoking, or curing


bluefish, swordfish, tuna, bonito, mackerel, and mahi mahi are types of fish commonly associated with (wht type of poisoning)

human, interior, & exterior elements

potential threats can come from wht 3 areas

7 million

nearly (#) Americans have food allergies

food protein

a food allergy is the body's negative reaction to a particular


grouper can cause wht type fish poisoning


(type) plant leaves tht are an example of a plant toxin (biological contaminant)


(which type of 3 contaminat) microbial contaminant that may cause a foodborne illness (things found in nature, ex: grouper, rhubarb leaves {bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi})


(which of the 3 types of contaminants) chemical substance that can cause a foodborne illness (ex: pesticides, lead wine decanter)


(which of the 3 types of contaminants) foreign object that is accidently introduced to the food (ex: Metal shavings, broken glass, etc.)


people who carry pathogens & infect others, yet never become ill themselves

infected lesion

wound contaminated w/ a pathogen

hand sanitizer

liquid or gel used to lower the # of microorganisms on the skin's surface

finger cot

protective covering used to cover a properly bandaged cut or wound on the finger

hair restraint

device used to keep foodhandlers' hair away from food & to keep them from touching it

single-use gloves

disposable gloves desigend for 1 time use


yellowing of the skin & eyes tht could indicate a person w/ Hepatitis A

100 degrees F

(when washing hands) wet your hands w/ running water at least (how hot)

70 and 125 degrees F

b/t wht temps. do microorganisms grow much faster (within the temp. danger zone)


may be the single most important thing you have to protect your food

bimetallic stemmed, thermocouple, & thermister

3 most common types of thermometers


immersion probes are designed to measure temps of

flat cooking equip.

surface probes measure temps of

boiling-point method, ice-point method

2 acceptable methods of calibrations are (point methods)


never use wht thermometers filled with mercury w/ food

USDA inspection stamp and USDA choice grade stamp

indicate that meat and processing plant have met USDA standards & the meat quality is acceptable (2 types USDA stamps)


a fresh shipment of wht delivered will be pink, lean meat w/ white fat

41 degrees F

all cold foods should be recieved at wht temp
(except shell eggs & shell fish)

45 degrees F

temp at which shell eggs and shell fish can be received

boiling point method

method of calibrating thermometers based on the boiling point of water


process of making accurate (thermometer) readings

ice point method

calibrating thermometers based on the freexing point of water


immediately upon delivery, carefully inspect items then put them away as quickly as possible (in a process called)


important step in the flow of food in a service establishment b/c the food is inspected for the first time

time-temp. indicator

determine if the products temp. has exceeded safe limits during shipment or later storage

MAP food

many fresh cut produce items are packaged this way

modified atmosphere packaging

MAP food stands for

Vacuum packed food

processed by removing the air around product sealed in a package

sous vide food

cooked or partially cooked food is vacuum packed in individual pouches & then chilled

ultra high temperature

UHT food

fresh poultry

should be shipped in self-draining crushed ice


mullusks such as clams, oysters, & mussels are


shrimp, crab, & lobster are


purchase only ____ dairy products

UHT foods

pudding, juices, & milk are examples of


Accept: red color
Reject: brown/green color


accept- light red color
reject- brown color


accept- light pink color
reject- dark color

fresh meat

accpet (texture)- firm/springs back
reject- slimy, stick, dry

fresh poultry

accept no discoloration, (texture) firm/springs back, no odor, surrounded by self-draining crushed ice
reject- purple/green, stickiness under wings or joints, abnormal odor

fresh fish

accept- bright red gills, bright shiny skin, mild ocean or seaweed smell, bright clear & full eyes, (texture) firm flesh/springs back
reject- dull gray gills, dull dry skin, strong fish smell/ ammonia, cloudy/red-rimmed/ sunken eyes, (texture) soft flesh, leaves imprint when touched

fresh shellfish

Accept- mild ocean or seaweed smell, shells closed & unbroken, (condition) if fresh, received alive
reject- strong fishy smell, broken shells, dead on arrival

fresh eggs

accept- no odor, clean/unbroken shells
reject- sulfur smell or off odor, dirty or cracked shells

fresh dairy

accept- sweetish milk, sweet/uniform/firm texture butter, typical flavor/texture/uniform color cheese
reject- sour/bitter/moldy taste milk, sour/bitter/moldy taste/uneven color/soft texture butter, abnormal flavor or texture/uneven color/unnatural mold cheese

properly labeled

all ready-to-eat food prepared on site that has been held for longer than 24hrs must be

first in, first out

FIFO stands for


all ready-to-eat food prepared in house can be stored for a max of _____ at 41 degrees F before it must be thrown out

cooked, ready-to-eat foods

stores in tope fridge shelf

whole or ground poultry

store on bottome fridge shelf

whole fish

store on second highest fridge shelf

whole beef/pork

store on 3rd (middle) shelf in fridge

ground meats

stores on 4th (next to last) shelf in fridge

39degrees F

air in the fridge must be kept at approx.
(not necessarily shell eggs and shellfish)

70 degrees F

when thawing food, you can submerge food under running potable water @ ___ or lower

165 degrees

cooking temperature for:
Stuffed meat, pasta
reheat for hot-hold service

155 degrees

Cooking Temperature for:
Ground meat, beef (to prevent e-coli), eggs for hot-hold service

145 degrees

Cooking Temperature for:
Fish, seafood, steaks, roasts, pork chops, Pork, beef, veal, lamb

135 degrees

Cooking Temperature for:
Fruits & Vegetables
Hot-Hold service
(includes off-site service)

41 degrees or lower

Storage temp for:
all cold foods, fresh poultry

45 degrees or lower

Storage temp for:
Shellfish (lobster, crabs, shrimp)

50-70 degrees

Storage temp. for:
canned foods, dry storage

135-70 degrees for 2hrs.

1 stage in 2-stage cooling

70-41 degrees for 4 hrs

2nd stage in 2-stage cooling

refrigerated storage

storage used to hold potentially hazardous food @ an internal temp. of 41 degrees F or lower


instrument used to measure relative humidity in storage areas

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