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128 terms

ServSafe Exam Review

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foodborne illness
an illness caused by eating contaminated food or beverage
foodborne-illness outbreak
the occurence of 2 or more cases of a similar illness resulting fron eating a common food
costs of a foodborne illness to an establishment
lose customers & sales, lose prestige & reputation, lawsuits resulting in legal fees, increased incurance premiums
populations at high risk for foodborne illness
elderly, infants/pre-school age children, pregnant women, people taking certain medications, perople who are seriously ill
biological, chemical, & physical
3 categories of potential hazards to food saftey (alphabetical order)
biological
category of potential hazards to food safety (1 of the 3) that poses the greatest threat
cross-contamination; (poor) personal hygiene; time-temp. abuse
3 common factors that are responsible for foodborne illness (cpt)
time-temp. abuse
any time food has been allowed to remian too long @ temps favorable to the growth of foodborne microorganisms
cross-contamination
occurs when microorganisms are transferred from one surface or food to another
flow of food
path food takes from purchasing to receiving all the way to serving
FDA Food code
service based reference for retail food establishments or how to prevent foodborne illness
contamination
prescence of harmful substances in food
pathogen
illness-causing microorganism
bacteria
single-celled living microorganisms that can spoil food & cause fooborne illnesses
virus
the smallest of the microbial food contaminants
parasite
microorganism that needs to live in a host organism to survive
fungi
range in size, from microscopic, single-celled organisms to very large, multicellular organisms
pH
measure of a food's acidity or alkality
mold
types of fungus that cause food spoilage
Food (Source)
F in FAT TOM
Acidity (Level/ (Slightly acidic)
A in FAT TOM
FAT TOM
conditions favorable for bacteria to grow & reproduce
(Room) Temperature
first T in FAT TOM
(Adequate) Time
second T in FAT TOM
Oxygen
O in FAT TOM
Moisture
M in FAT TOM
temp. danger zone
the temp. range b/t 41 and 135 degrees F within which foodborne microorganisms grow
yeast
type of fungus that causes food spoilage
foodborne infection
result of a person eating food containing PATHOGENS, which then grow in the intestines and cause illness
foodborne intoxication
result of a person eating food containing TOXINS that cause an illness (eating posion food)
foodborne toxin-mediated infection
result of a person eating food contaminated w/ bacteria that grows in body from toxins
TCS foods
foods that need time & temp. control for safety
pathogens
the largest threat to food safety comes from microorganisms:
(the leading cause of foodborne illness)
e. coli
caused by bacteria that lives in the intestines of cattle (ground beef)
hepatitis A
shellfish & salads are possible sources for:
Vibrio spp.
oysters are commonly associated w/ an outbreak of
pathogens
cannot be seen, smelled, or tasted in food
41 and 135 degrees F
temperature range for the temp. danger zone (range in which most foodborne microorganisms grow well)
infections
of the 3 foodborne illnesses (infections, intoxications, toxin-mediated infections), which one do symptoms not appear immediately
intoxications
of the 3 foodborne illnesses (infections, intoxications, toxin-mediated infections), which one do symptoms appear within a few hours
soil
spores are commonly found in:
(& can contaminate food grown there)
spore
can resist heat, allowingit to survive cooking temps.
infections
salmonellosis and shigellosis are 2 examples of
botulism
one type of intoxication (canned foods)
fungi
found naturally in air, soil, plants, water, & some food
fungi
mold, yeast, and mushrooms are 3 examples of
alcohol
yeast spoilage may produce a smell or taste of
discarded
food that's been spoiled by yeast should be
pufferfish
due to the extreme risk posed by (fish), it should not be served unless the chef has been licensed to prepare it
41 degrees F
the temp, fish should be at delivery
thawed & refrozen
refuse any product that's been (2 words)
scromboid & ciguatera (fish poisoning)
the 2 types of fish toxin illnesses
histamine poisoning
scromboid poisoning is also known as
scromboid poisoning
cannot be destroyed by freezing, cooking, smoking, or curing
scromboid
bluefish, swordfish, tuna, bonito, mackerel, and mahi mahi are types of fish commonly associated with (wht type of poisoning)
human, interior, & exterior elements
potential threats can come from wht 3 areas
7 million
nearly (#) Americans have food allergies
food protein
a food allergy is the body's negative reaction to a particular
ciguatera
grouper can cause wht type fish poisoning
rhubarb
(type) plant leaves tht are an example of a plant toxin (biological contaminant)
biological
(which type of 3 contaminat) microbial contaminant that may cause a foodborne illness (things found in nature, ex: grouper, rhubarb leaves {bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi})
chemical
(which of the 3 types of contaminants) chemical substance that can cause a foodborne illness (ex: pesticides, lead wine decanter)
physical
(which of the 3 types of contaminants) foreign object that is accidently introduced to the food (ex: Metal shavings, broken glass, etc.)
carriers
people who carry pathogens & infect others, yet never become ill themselves
infected lesion
wound contaminated w/ a pathogen
hand sanitizer
liquid or gel used to lower the # of microorganisms on the skin's surface
finger cot
protective covering used to cover a properly bandaged cut or wound on the finger
hair restraint
device used to keep foodhandlers' hair away from food & to keep them from touching it
single-use gloves
disposable gloves desigend for 1 time use
jaundice
yellowing of the skin & eyes tht could indicate a person w/ Hepatitis A
100 degrees F
(when washing hands) wet your hands w/ running water at least (how hot)
70 and 125 degrees F
b/t wht temps. do microorganisms grow much faster (within the temp. danger zone)
thermometer
may be the single most important thing you have to protect your food
bimetallic stemmed, thermocouple, & thermister
3 most common types of thermometers
liquids
immersion probes are designed to measure temps of
flat cooking equip.
surface probes measure temps of
boiling-point method, ice-point method
2 acceptable methods of calibrations are (point methods)
glass
never use wht thermometers filled with mercury w/ food
USDA inspection stamp and USDA choice grade stamp
indicate that meat and processing plant have met USDA standards & the meat quality is acceptable (2 types USDA stamps)
pork
a fresh shipment of wht delivered will be pink, lean meat w/ white fat
41 degrees F
all cold foods should be recieved at wht temp
(except shell eggs & shell fish)
45 degrees F
temp at which shell eggs and shell fish can be received
boiling point method
method of calibrating thermometers based on the boiling point of water
calibration
process of making accurate (thermometer) readings
ice point method
calibrating thermometers based on the freexing point of water
inspection
immediately upon delivery, carefully inspect items then put them away as quickly as possible (in a process called)
receiving
important step in the flow of food in a service establishment b/c the food is inspected for the first time
time-temp. indicator
determine if the products temp. has exceeded safe limits during shipment or later storage
MAP food
many fresh cut produce items are packaged this way
modified atmosphere packaging
MAP food stands for
Vacuum packed food
processed by removing the air around product sealed in a package
sous vide food
cooked or partially cooked food is vacuum packed in individual pouches & then chilled
ultra high temperature
UHT food
fresh poultry
should be shipped in self-draining crushed ice
shellfish
mullusks such as clams, oysters, & mussels are
crustaceans
shrimp, crab, & lobster are
pasteurized
purchase only ____ dairy products
UHT foods
pudding, juices, & milk are examples of
beef
Accept: red color
Reject: brown/green color
lamb
accept- light red color
reject- brown color
pork
accept- light pink color
reject- dark color
fresh meat
accpet (texture)- firm/springs back
reject- slimy, stick, dry
fresh poultry
accept no discoloration, (texture) firm/springs back, no odor, surrounded by self-draining crushed ice
reject- purple/green, stickiness under wings or joints, abnormal odor
fresh fish
accept- bright red gills, bright shiny skin, mild ocean or seaweed smell, bright clear & full eyes, (texture) firm flesh/springs back
reject- dull gray gills, dull dry skin, strong fish smell/ ammonia, cloudy/red-rimmed/ sunken eyes, (texture) soft flesh, leaves imprint when touched
fresh shellfish
Accept- mild ocean or seaweed smell, shells closed & unbroken, (condition) if fresh, received alive
reject- strong fishy smell, broken shells, dead on arrival
fresh eggs
accept- no odor, clean/unbroken shells
reject- sulfur smell or off odor, dirty or cracked shells
fresh dairy
accept- sweetish milk, sweet/uniform/firm texture butter, typical flavor/texture/uniform color cheese
reject- sour/bitter/moldy taste milk, sour/bitter/moldy taste/uneven color/soft texture butter, abnormal flavor or texture/uneven color/unnatural mold cheese
properly labeled
all ready-to-eat food prepared on site that has been held for longer than 24hrs must be
first in, first out
FIFO stands for
7days
all ready-to-eat food prepared in house can be stored for a max of _____ at 41 degrees F before it must be thrown out
cooked, ready-to-eat foods
stores in tope fridge shelf
whole or ground poultry
store on bottome fridge shelf
whole fish
store on second highest fridge shelf
whole beef/pork
store on 3rd (middle) shelf in fridge
ground meats
stores on 4th (next to last) shelf in fridge
39degrees F
air in the fridge must be kept at approx.
(not necessarily shell eggs and shellfish)
70 degrees F
when thawing food, you can submerge food under running potable water @ ___ or lower
165 degrees
cooking temperature for:
poultry,
Stuffed meat, pasta
reheat for hot-hold service
155 degrees
Cooking Temperature for:
Ground meat, beef (to prevent e-coli), eggs for hot-hold service
145 degrees
Cooking Temperature for:
Fish, seafood, steaks, roasts, pork chops, Pork, beef, veal, lamb
135 degrees
Cooking Temperature for:
Fruits & Vegetables
Hot-Hold service
(includes off-site service)
41 degrees or lower
Storage temp for:
all cold foods, fresh poultry
45 degrees or lower
Storage temp for:
Shellfish (lobster, crabs, shrimp)
Eggs
50-70 degrees
Storage temp. for:
canned foods, dry storage
135-70 degrees for 2hrs.
1 stage in 2-stage cooling
70-41 degrees for 4 hrs
2nd stage in 2-stage cooling
refrigerated storage
storage used to hold potentially hazardous food @ an internal temp. of 41 degrees F or lower
hygrometer
instrument used to measure relative humidity in storage areas