22 terms

Functions of Cell Parts

Biology mid-term, these are all of the parts of the cell and their funtions
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Cytoplasm
General term used to refer to the material inside the cell between the cell membrane and nucleus; divided into the cytosol, organelles, and inclusions
Cytosol
intracellular fluid; contains nutrients, ions, proteins, and waste products
Cytoskeleton
internal protein framework of threadlike filaments and hollow tubes that give the cytoplasm flexibility and support; consists of microfilaments and microtubules
Microfilaments
thinnest component of the cytoplasm; form a dense layer just inside the cell
Microtubules
hollow tubes built of tubulin; main component of the cytoskeleton; anchors some organelles; forms the spindle during cell division
Microvilli
small finger-shaped projections off of the cell membrane, meant to increase surface areas for absorption
Centrioles
A pair of small, cylindrical structures composed of microtubules. they are involved in the seperation of chromosomes during cell division in animal cells and protists. they arent found in plant cells.
Cilia
short hair-like structures that movie fluid or secretions across the cell surface
Flagellum
A long, hairlike structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move.
Ribosomes
manufacture proteins for use within the cell; can be bound or free
Endoplasmic reticulum
smooth: synthesizes phosolipids. cholesterol, and steroid hormones (in reproductive organs); synthesizes and stores glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver cells
rough: participates in protein synthesis
Vesicle, transition
transports endoplasmic reticulum products to the Golgi
Golgi
flattened membranous sacs; involves in the synthesis and packagine of secretions and enzymes for use within the cell; renews and modifies the cell membrane when secretory vesicles fuse with the cell membranne
Lysosome
An organelle containing digestive enzymes; involved in the defense against disease and the removal of damaged or dead cells
Vesicles, secretory
transport Golgi products to the cell membrane for release from the cell
Mitochondria
Converts energy stored in glucose into ATP
Vacuole
Storage
Nucleus
Contains DNA—is the control center of the cell
Nuclear envelope
double membrane surrounding the nuclear contents
Nuclear pores
Openings in the nuclear envelope that allow materials to pass between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Chromosomes/chromatin
Composed of DNA and proteins; found in nucleus; tightly packed during cell division and dispersed during normal cell operations
Nucleolus
manufactures the components of ribosomes
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