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371 terms

BPI

STUDY
PLAY
NEAT
National Energy Audit Tool
Superheat
Heat added to the evaporating vapor to ensure that no liquid enters the compressor
Sling Psychrometer
Instrument used to measure water vapor content of the atmosphere
ALA
Approximate Leakage Area
ALA Square Inch
10% of air flow
Wet Bulb Temperature
Used to evaluate the humidity in the air
Plenum
A sealed chamber at the inlet or outlet of an air handler
Dry Bulb Temperature
The temperature of air measured by a thermometer freely exposed to the air
CFM50 Per Square Foot
Flow rate at 50P divided by the total square footage
TESP
The sum of the absolute values of the supply and return static pressures
A-Coil
Evaporator section of the cooling system - Consists of two coils shaped like the letter "A"
Furnace fan-on temperature
120-140F
Heat Rise
Supply Temp minus Return Temp
Furnace fan-off temperature
95-105F
Ammeter
A meter that measures the flow of electrical current in amperes
Heat Exchanger
A device that transfers heat from one substance to another
CAZ
Combustion Appliance Zone
Air Barrier
Material that is continuous, sealed at the seams and impermeable to airflow
Thermal Boundary
A line or plane where insulation and air barriers exist in order to resist thermal transmission and air leakage throu or within a building shell
EEBA
Energy Efficient Builders Association
Sacrificial Anode
Metallic anode which is meant to be dissolved to protect other metallic components
R-Value
Measure of K value of a specific material (K is a measure of heat conduction)
LSW
Lead Safe Weatherization
Flame Retention Burner
An oil burner designed to hold the flame near the nozzle surface
Efflorescence
White powdery deposit left by water that moves through masonry and leaves minerals from mortar or soild behind as it evaporates
Rise-Run Rate for vent connectors
1/4" rise over 1' run (Allows combustion gases to rise through the vent and prevent condensation from pooling & rusting the vent)
Primary Air Barrier
When there are two air barriers the most airtight is the primary air barrier
Heating Degree Days
Degrees when average temperature is below 65F ex: average temperature today is 50F=15HDD)
1 ton of cooling
12,000 BTUs/hour
Gores
Segment of a three-dimensinal shape fabricated from a two-dimensional material (the parts of a duct elbow)
Blower Wheel
Squirrel cage wheel whose purpose is to move the air through the room
NFRC
National Fenestration Rating Council
Low-E
E=emissivity refers to building materials designed to reduce heat transfer through thermal conductivity
Jalousie Window
Window which consists of parrallel glass louvers set in a frame
Weep Holes
Small holes in the bottom of a window assembly that allow for water to escape
Therm
100,000 BTUs or roughly 100 cubic feet of natural gas
Rise-Run for extension ladder
1' run for every 4' rise
Dense Packing
Shoving cellulosic insulation in at a rate of 3.5-4lbs per cubic foot, usually done on exterior walls
Falls
What does propane gas do from a leak
ACH
Air Changes per Hour
Intermediate Zones
Unconditioned spaces that are sheltered within the exterior shell of the house
Fenestration
The arrangement of windows and doors
Latent Heat
Heat given off when matter changes state
Sensible Heat
heat that causes a change in temperature
Bypasses
Conduits for air travel within building cavities IE: porch overhangs
Balloon Framing
Long, continuous framing members that run from sill plate to eave line with intermediate floor structures nailed to them.
Backer Rod
Usuallly an extruded foam rod placed into voids to insulate and allow a backing for application sealant
Convection
Heat tranferred from one place to another using a fluid
Conduction
Heat transfer within a substance or from one substance to another
Net free area
The actual amount of area in a vent that is not the material itself (metal grills and louvers have have 60-75% net free area, wodden ones only 20-25%)
How to fasten single wall vent pipe
3 screws or rivets
Pascal
Unit of pressure measurement defined as one newton per square meter
Base Load
Water heating, lighting, refrigeration and any other year-round energy use
ICC
International Construction Code
AFUE
Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency
pocket door cavity
Where pocket cavities extend to exterior walls, shove strips of fiberglass into the door opening with a broom handle shallow enough so that door can close
Stack Effect
The movement of air into and out of a building due to indoor/outdoor air density differences and natural bouyency
Vent Connector
Connects appliances venting outlet with the chimney
AGA
American Gas Association
Radiation
Continuous and unequal exchange of heat
18.5
N Factor for Missouri-one story house
Latent Heat
Energy given off when matter changes state
Energy Factor
Total energy delivered over total energy purchased expressed as a percentage
SIR
Savings to Investment Ratio
Type-L vent connector
Stainless-steel inner pipe and galvanized or black steel outer pipe
IFGC
International Fuel Gas Code
BAS
Building Airflow Standard
IFGC confined space
A room containing 1 or more combustion appliances that has less than 50 cubic fee of volume for every 1000 BTU/H of appliance output
Power Venters
create a stable and negative draft, commonly used for sidewall venting
AFUE
Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency
FLA
Full Load Amp
Gas Sniffer
Electronic Combustable Gas Detector
Cold water dip tube
a plastic tube below the cold port of a water heater-carries cold water to the bottom of the tank & keeps it separated from the already-heated water at the top of the tank.
U-Value
Overall heat transfer coefficient-describes how well a building element conducts heat (smaller the value the better)
SSE
Steady State Efficiency-Efficiency of a furnace once it is up and running
TESP
Total Exterior Static Pressure
FSK
Foil Scrim Kraft - foil faced batt insulation
Type-B vent
Consists of galvonized steel outer pipe and aluminum inner pipe
NFPA
National Fire Protection Association
Optimal refrigerator temperature range
35-40 degrees F
Optimal freezer temp
-5 degrees F
Sensible Heat
Heat that causes a change in temperature
Solenoid
A loop of wire wrapped around a metal core which produces a magnetic field when electricity runs through it (usually used in switches)
Manometer
Instrument used to check air pressure
PMI
Per Manufacturer's Instructions
Rises
Natural gas does what from a leak
CH4 + O2 =
C02 + H2O + CO + O2
2-4 years
Gas burner should be maintained every
IWC
Inches Water Column
Commissioning
the process of ensuring that systems are designed, installed, functionally tested, and capable of being operated and maintained to perform to design intent.
Atmospheric Chimney
Transports combustion gases using the flames' heat and gas' buoyancy
Draft Diverter
Also known as a "draft hood" helps vent combustion air away from hot water heaters
CH4
Natural Gas
MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheet
Blower door standard pressure
50 Pascals
Pressure Pan
Used to block registers and measure air pressure behind it
ASHRAE 62-1989
Standard for acceptable IAQ 15 CF/M or outdoor air per person or .35 air changes per hour
Sones
Units of perceived loudness
Hours per year
8760
Seasonal Energy Use
heating and cooling
ECM
Energy Concervation Measures
MHEA
Mobile Home Energy Audit
DNR/EC
Department of Natural Resources Energy Center
LIHEAP
Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program
DWH
Domestic Water Heater
Dense Pack
Installation of Cellulose at density of 3.5-4.0 lbs/cubic foot
First law of thermodynamics
Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but merely moves from place to place and changes form.
Second law of thermodynamics
Heat moves from high temperature regions to low temperature regions-never the reverse
Enthalpy
The internal heat of a material measured in BTUs per pound
Backdrafting
Continuous spillage of combustion gases from a combustion appliance
Power
Energy divided by time
rh
relative humidity
Baffle
A plate or strip designed to retard or redirect the flow of flue gases
capillary action
The ability of water to move through materials, even upward against gravity through small tubes or spaces
capillary barrier
A material or air space designed to stop capillary acton from carrying water into a building
COP
Coefficient of Performance A heat pump or air conditioner's output in whatt-hours of heat moved divided by watt-hours of electrical input
Decatherm
one million BTU's or 10 therms
Desiccant
Liquid or solid material used to absorb water or water vapor
Dormer
A vertical window projecting from a roof
Drainage Plane
A space that allows water storage and drainage in a wall cavity
Enthalpy
The internal heat of a material measured in BTU's per pound
Exfiltration
Air flowing out of a residence from its conditioned space through the shell
Fin Comb
A comb-like tool used to straighten bent fins in an air conditioner
Flashing
Waterproof matterial used to prevent leakage at intersections between the roof surface at wall penetrations
Footcandle
A measure of light intensity
Frost Line
the maximum depth of the soil where water will freeze during the coldest weather
Gable
The triangular section of an end wall formed by the pitch of the roof
Insolation
the amount of solar radiation striking a surface
Make-Up Air
Air supplied to a space to replace exhausted air
Manifold
A section of pipe with multiple openings
Mastic
A thick creamy stubstance used to seal seams and cracks in building materials
ODS
Oxygen Depletion Sensor
Oxygen Depletion Sensor
A safety device for unvented combustion heaters that shuts gas off when oxygen is depleted
Psychrometrics
The science of the relationship between air, water vapor, and heat
Purlins
Framing members that sit on top of rafters, perpendicular to them, designed to spread support to roofing materials
Radon
A radioactive gas that decomposes into radioactive particles
Resistance
The property of a material resisting the flow of electrical energy or heat energy
Sash
A movable or stationary part of a window that frames a pieces of glass
Scale
Dissolved minerals that precipitate inside boilers and storage tanks
Sealed-Combustion
A combustion appliance that draws combustion air from outdoors and has a sealed exhaust system
SEER
Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio
Sequencer
A bimetal switch that turns on the elements of an electric furnice in sequence
SC
Shading Coefficient
Shading Coefficient
A decimal describing how much solar energy is transmitted through a window, compared to a clear, single glass, which has an SC of 1.0
Sill
The bottom of a window or door frame
Soffit
The underside of a roof overhand or a small lowered ceiling
Solar Gain
Heat from the sun that is absorbed by a building and contributes to the need for cooling
SHGC
Solar Heat-Gain Coefficient
Solar Heat-Gain Coefficient
The rato of solar heat gain through a window to incident solar heat. Includes both transmitted heat and absorbed and reradiated heat.
Solar Transmittance
The percent of total solar energy transmitted by a material
Specific Heat
The ratio of a material's heat storage capacity to the heat storage capacity of water
Spillage
Temporary flow of combustion gases from a dilution device
Split-system
An air conditioner that has the condenser and compressor outdoors and the evaporator indoors
Standing Losses
Losses from a hot water storage tank through its shell
Static Pressure
measurement of a pressure in a fluid filled chamber at a specific location
Steam Trap
An automatic valve that closes to trap steam in a radiator until it condenses
Strike Plate
The metal plate attached to the door jamb that latch inserts into.
Subcooling
The number of degrees Fahrenheit that a scondenser and nearby piping ools the liquid refrigerant below its saturation temperature
Thermal Break
A piece of relatively low conducting material between two high conducting materials
Thermal Bridging
Rapid heat conduction resulting from direct contact between very thermally conductive materials like metal and glass
Vapor Diffusion
The flow of water vapor through a solid material
Visible Transmittance
The percent of visible light transmitted by a glass assembly
EPA
Environmental Protection Agency
HERS
Home Energy Rating Systems
RESNET
Residential Energy Services Network
IECC
International Energy Concervation Code
Emittance
The ability of a material to emit radiant energy from its surface
Absorptance
The ratio of a solar energy absorbed to incident solar
Reflectance
The ability of a material's surface to reflect radiant heat. Also called reflectivity
Heating Balance Point
Where outdoor temperature is such that no indoor heating is needed
RH
Relative Humidity
Relative Humidity
Measures how saturated the air is with a percentage of water vapor.
Ohm's Law
E(voltage)=I(current) x R(resistance)
GFCI
Ground Fault Circuit Inturruptor
Gusset
a metal plate used to strengthen a joist
Thermal Conductivity
How much heat in BTUs flows through a 1" thick by 1' square foot slab of that material per hour when there is a 1-degree-Fahrenheit temperature difference between the slab's two surfaces
Thermal Break
A piece of relatively low conducting material between two high conducting materials
Design Temperature
The temperature equaled or exceeded 97.5% of the time during the three coldest months: Dec, Jan & Feb
Q
heating loss
Leeward Side
The side sheltered by the wind
MVG
Minimum Ventilation Guideline
MVR
Minimum Ventilatin Rate
HRV
Heat Recovery Ventilator
ERV
Energy Recovery Ventilator
OSB
Oriented-Strand Board
Scissor Trusses
A roof truss in which the braces cross like scissors. Usually used for cathedral ceilings
gasket
A flexible material designed to seal a gap between two less flexible materials.
W-W R
Whole-Wall R-Value
Whole-Wall R
The average R-value of a wall including framing materials
Clear-Wall R
The average R value of the cavity between framing members
XPS
Extruded Polystyrene
EIFS
Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems
Air Krete
Insulative, non-combustable foam composed of expandeed portland cement and sand
Drainage Plane
A space that allows water storage and drainage in a wall cavity, adjacent to or part of the weather-resistant barrier.
Perm
A measurement of how much water vapor a material will let pass through it per unit of time.
Thermal Barrier
A sheeting material that protects the materials behind it from reaching a temperature of 250F during a fire.
Ignition Barrier
A material used with foam insulation to prevent the foam from igniting.
Fire Partition
A fire barrier that prevents the spread of fire between rooms on one level of a building.
Firewall
A structural fire barrier between buildings that is designed to remain intact and standing in, during and after a fire
rough opening
Structural framing around the window to which the window fram is attached
LBL
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials
SHGC
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient
The ratio of solar heat passing through the glass to solar heat falling on the glass at a 90 degree angle.
SC
Shading Coefficient
Shading Coefficient
Compares the solar transmittance of a glass assembly compared single-pane glass which has a SC of 1. Always less than 1
VT
Visible Transmittance
Visible Transmittance
Measures how much visible light is admitted by the window glass.
Casement Window
A window attached to it's frame with one or more hinges
Heating System
The heater and its distribution system
Circulator
A blower or pump for moving the heating fluid, air, water or steam
Flue
A passageway for venting combustion gases
Open-Combustion
Combustion chaber, heat exchanger, flues & chimney OPEN to surrounding air
Closed-Combustion
Combustion chamber, heat exchanger, flues & chimney CLOSED to surrounding air
Draft
The force that brings combustion air into the combustion chamber and propels the combustion gases out through the venting system.
Delivered Efficiency
The percentage of the fuel's potential energy that actually heats the living space.
Cycling Losses
The heat lost while warming up a furnace or boiler
High Limit Control
Bimetal element attached to a switch in the burner's control circuit. Extinguishes the burner in the event of overheating.
Thermocouple
Small Electric generator powered by heat from the pilot light or gas appliance. If the pilot light goes out, the current stops and the spring-loaded valve closes shutting off the gas.
Zoning
Dividing a home into parts or zones that are controlled by separate thermostats
COP
Coefficient Of Performance
Hydronic Heat Pump
Uses the refrigeration cycle to move heat from the earth or a body of water into the home through a hydronic distribution system
All-Fuel Chimney
Chimneys used as verticle chimneys for oil and solid-fuel appliances.
Vent Damper
Reduces the heat loss from a furnace or boiler by closing off the chimney when the burner isn't operating.
Lumens Per Watt
Lighting Efficiency or efficacy is measure by these units
footcandle
a lumen of light distributed over one square foot of area
CRI
Color Rendering Index
Rattler
Measures CO levels in ambient air
DG-700
Commonly used digital pressure and flow guage
Bacharach
Commonly used digital combustion analyzer
WCD
Worst Case Draft
Smoke Pen
Handheld device that tests for spillage or air leaks
20-25 years
Expected life span of a furnace
Internal Gains
Waste heat from lighting, refrigeration etc. as well as people
evapotranspiration
The process by which a plant releases water vapor
Radiant Barrier
Foil sheet or coating designed to reflect heat rays or retards their emission
Evaporative Cooler
Device for cooling homes in dry climates that cools the incoming air by humidifying it.
SEER
Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio
Manual J
Method developed by the air conditioning Contractors of America to size heating and cooling equipment.
SHF
Sensible Heat Factor
Sensible Heat Factor
The moisture removal capacity of an air conditioner
Recovery Capacity
Gallons per hour a water heater can heat
Tankless Water Heater
heats water as it flows through the heater, eliminating the need for a storage tank
Heat Traps
Valves or loops of pipe that stop convection of hot water into the ht and cold water pipes ablove the storage water heater or external storage tank.
ETS
Environmental Tobacco Smoke
BTL
Building Tightness Limit
Decking
The wood material installed under roofing material to support the roofing
Conductance
The property of a material to conduct some energy form like heat or electricity
footing
The part of a foundation system that actually transfers the weight of the building to the ground
feeder wires
The wires connecting the electric meter and main switch with the main panel box
Fill Tube
A plastic or metal tube used for its stiffness to blow insulation inside a building cavity
Fuse
A current carrying element that melts if too much current flows in an electric circuit
Hydronic
An ambiguous term meaning either hot-water space heating or both hot water and steam space heating
Infrared
Pertaining to heat rays emitted by the sun or warm objects on earth
Jamb
The side or top piece of a window or door frame
Kinetic Energy
Energy in transition or motion
Luminaire
A light fixture
Microclimate
A very localized climatic area, usually of a small side or habitat.
Mortar
A mixture of sand, water, and cement used to bond bricks, stones or blocks together
Plate
a piece of lumber installed horizontally to which the vertical studs in a wall frame are attached
Relamping
The replacement of an existing lamp with a lower wattage lamp
BPI
Building Performance Institute
Relay
An automatic, electrically-operated switch
Return Air
Air circulating back to the furnace from the house, to be heated by the furnace and supplied to the rooms.
Rim Joist
The outermost joist around the perimeter of the floor framing
Service Wires
the wires coming from the utility transformer to the service equipment of the building
Short Circuit
A malfunction in an electrical circuit, where electricity is flowing through conductors without going through an electrical load like a light or motor.
Stop
A thin trim board for windows and doors to close or slide against
subfloor
The sheathing over the floor joists and under the flooring
Substrate
A layer of material to which another layer is applied
Task Lighting
Lighting provided at the area where a visual task is performed
Thermodynamics
The study of work, heat and energy in a system
Threshold
The raised part of a floor underneath a door that acts as an air and dust seal
Transformer
A double coil of wire that reduces or increses voltage from a primary circuit to a secondary circuit
Truss
A lightweight, rigid framework designed to be stronger than a solid beam of the same weight
Underlayment
sheeting installed to provide a smooteh, sound base for a finish material
Window Films
Plastic films, coated wiith a metallized reflective surface, that are adhered to window glass to reflect heat rays from the sun
Mudsill
the lowest sill of a structure, placed on the foundation or directly on the ground
EDPM
ETHYLENE PROPYLENE DIMONOMER an elastomer material used for gaskets
hygrometer
Instrument that measures relative humidity
cripple stud
In wood frame construction, the stud placed above or below a window or door frame
Header
a framing member crossing and supporting the ends of joists, studs, or rafters so as to transfer their weight to parallel joists, studs, or rafters
Argon
A colorless, odorless inert gas sometimes used in the spaces between the panes in energy efficient windows.
Bird's Mouth
A cutout near the bottom of a rafter fits over the rafter plate
Brick Veneer
Brick used as the outer surface of a framed wall
Butt Joint
A simple joint made by fastening two end pieces together without overlapping
CB
Circuit Breaker
Circuit Breaker
Safety device which opens (breaks) an electric circuit automatically when it becomes overloaded
Laths
Narrow strips which support plastering
Portico
A monumental projecting porch with a roof supported by columns, often placed at the entrance of a building
Rafters
Beams that slope from the ridge of a roof to the eaves making the main body of the roof's framework
Riser
The vertical board between two treads of a flight of stairs
Slab
Concrete floor placed directly on earth or a gravel base and usually about four inches thick.
Stringer
A long horizontal timber in a structure supporting a floor
Stucco
A fine plaster used for interior decoration and fine work also used for rough outside wall coverings
Swale
A wide shallow depression in the ground to form a channel for storm water drainage.
Tread
The horizontal part of a step
Wainscoting
Matched boarding or panel work covering the lower portion of a wall
Water Table
The finish at the bottom of a house that carries water away from the foundation
Fire Block
Blocks normally installed in balloon framed walls to slow down the spread of fire.
King Stud
The stud running from top to bottom plate on either side of a window or door.
Embodied Energy
The available energy that was used in the work of making a product
Air Change
The amount of air required to completely replace the air in a room or building.
Carbon Monoxide Poisening
Carboxyhemogoblin Saturation
Supply
The ductwork that carries air from the air handler to the rooms in the house.
IAQ
Indoor Air Quality
sill plate
The first component of the framing, bolted to the foundation walls, supports the building while anchoring it to the foundation.
35 PPM
Carbon monoxide level limit for ambiant air
BAS
Building Airflow Standard
Building Airflow Standard
BAS
60 seconds
How long before an appliance fails the spillage test
9 ppm
ASHRAE limit for 24-hour carbon monoxide exposure
R-7
Ventilation exhaust ductwork outside building shell must have insulation rated at:
R-14
Minimum insulation level for attic access openings
Asbestos
Blower door testing cannot be performed if ______ could become airborne
OSHA
Occupational Safety & Health Administration
IC Rated
Recessed fixtured rated for zero-clearance to insulation by Underwriters Laboratory
UL
Underwriters Laboratory
IC
Insulated Contact
Neutral
The wide slot on a 120 volt three prong outlet
Ground
The round slot on a 120 volt three prong outlet
Hot
The narrow slot on a 120 volt three prong outlet
400 cfm
One ton of cooling requires how much blower capacity
.23
U-Value of 2X4 wood stud
4.38
R-Value of a 2X4 wood stud
250
How many pascals in 1 IWC
magnehelic gauge
A sensitive differential pressure or vacuum gauge
Radon
You might pressurize a house if what is present?
energy recovery ventilator
A ventilator that recovers latent and sensible energy from the exhaust airstream and imparts it to the incoming airstream.
Add Humidity
What does ventilation do for a home during the winter?
Heating Seasonal Performance Factor
Rating for heat pumps describing how many BTUs they provide per watt-hour of electricity consumed
HSPF
Heating Seasonal Performance Factor
heat pump
Apparatus that extracts heat from a liquid that is at a higher temperature than its surroundings
Respirator
Must be worn when working in areas with mold, asbestos, lead, fiberglass or formaldehyde
NFPA
National Fire Protection Agency
Hydronic Heaters
Includes baseboard heaters (convectors) and radiant flooring that uses warm water as the heat source.
10%
Maximum allowable duct leakage
total equivalent length
Heating and cooling system piping length
ACCA
Air Conditioning Contractors of America
4758
Heating Degree Days for St. Louis
Ridge Beam
Beam at top of roof to which rafters are attached
Stick Frame
Skeletal framing system using thin columns spaced closely together
Stem Wall
water-resistant wall built on top of a foundation and designed to lift vulnerable wall materials away from insects and water
Point Load
Load concentrated in a small area
Torsion
Twisting Force
Uplift
Force caused by wind pulling up on protruding sections of a building, usually the roof
Pier
Water-resistant column built on top of a foundation and designed to lift vulnerable materials away from insects and water.
Screed
A smooth final surface of a substance, such as concrete, applied to a floor.
BTU
The amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit
Dew Point
The termperature at which air can no longer hold more water
Inside
In Missouri, we put vapor barriers on which side of the wall cavity.
Material Safety Data Sheet
All chemicals & smoke pens brought on side need a:
disable or have it repaired
What should you do about the CO producing appliance before proceeding with additional diagnostics or inspections
combustion appliance safety inspection
CO test, draft measurement, spillage evaluation and worst case depressurization of CAS
inspect for leaks
In homes with natural gas or propane service, what test is needed
attic leakage
When considering air sealing a house, which part should you give the highest priority?
BAS
Whenever changes to a building shell require a blower door test, what first needs to be calculated?
mechanical ventilation
What is the correct action if final CFM50 is LOWER than BAS and less than .7XBAS
1-2 feet from draft diverter
On a DHW unit, where should the test hole be drilled?
5 minutes
How long does it take to acheive Steady State Efficiency?
Intersitial
word relating to the space between walls in balloon framing where there can be convection currents.
35ppm
You turn off appliances and ventilate spaces if the ambiant CO levels are greater than:
100-300PPM
Level 1 action for oven: recommend CO detector & a service call should be taken if SSE CO levels are:
300PPM or more
Level 2 Action for oven: unit must be serviced and if no improvements, install an exhause fan at 250 CFM if SSE CO levels are:
shows if they're connected
Why is a zone test helpful between an attached garage and a house?
flame flickers
What is the symptom of a cracked heat exchanger
air sealing
Attic insulation shall not be recommended until after what is performed?
zone testing
what test will show how much air leaks between the attic and the living space?
local codes
How are minimum insulation levels determined
GAMA
Gas Appliance Manufacturing Association
Kerfuffle
disturbance: a disorderly outburst or tumult