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A representative from New Hampshire, he led the New Federalists in opposition to the moving of the second national bank from Boston to Phillidelphia. Later, he served as representative and a senator for Massachusetts and emerged as a champion of a stronger national government. He also switched from opposing to supporting tariffs because New England had built up its mnufactures with the understanding that tariffs would protect them from foreign competitors.
In hte first half of the nineteenth century, he was the foremost spokesman for the American System. As speaker of the House in the 1820s, he promoted economic nationalism, "market revoluion", and the rapid development of western states and territories. He formulated the "second" Missouri Compromise, which denied the Missouri state legislature the power to exclude the rights of free blacks and mulattos. In the deadlocked presidential election of 1824, the House of Representatives decided the election. He supported John Quincy Adams, who won the presidency and appointed him to secretary of state. Andrew Jackson claimed that he had entered into a "corrupt bargain" with Adams for his own selfish gains.
John C. Calhoun
He served in both the House of Representatives and the Senate for South Carolina before becomming secretay of state under President monroe and John Quincy Adams's vice president. He introduced the bull for the Seconf National Bank to Congress and led the minority of southerners who voted for the tariff of 1816. However, he later chose to oppose tariffs. During his time as secretary of war under President Monroe, he authorized the use of federal troops against seminoles who were attacking settlers. As John QUincy Adams's vice president, he supported a new tariffs billto win presidential candidate Andrew JAckson additional support. Jackson won the election, but the new tariffs bill passed and this man had to explain why he had changed his opinion on tariffs.
Tarrif of 1816
First true protective tariff, intended srtictly to protect American goods against foreign compettition.
Program of internal improvements and protective tariffs promoted by Speaker of the House Henry Clay in his presidential campaign of 1824; his proposals formed the core of Whig ideology in the 1830s and 1840s.
(1758-1831) He served as secretary of state and war under President Madison and was elected presidetn. As the latter, he signed the Transcontinental Treaty with Spain which gave the US Florida and expanded the Louisisana Territory's western border to the Pacific coast. In 1823, he established the Monroe-Doctrine. This foreign policy proclaimed the American continents were no longer open to colonization and America would be neutral in European affairs.
John Quincy Adams
As secretary of state under president Monroe, he negotiated agreements to define the boundaries of the Oregon country and the Transcontinental Treaty. He urged president Monroe to issue the Monroe Doctrine, which incorporated his views. As president, he envisioned an expanded federal government and a broader use of federal powers. His nationalism and praise of European leaders caused a split in his party. Some Republicans suspected him of being a closet monarchist and lef tto form the Democrat party. In the presidential election of 1828, Andrew Jackson claimed that he had gained the presidency through a "corrupt bargain" with Henry Clay, which helped Jackson win the election.
The convention of 1818 between Britain and the US established this as being west of the cres of the Rocky Mountains and the two countries were to jointly occupy it. In 1824, the US ans Russia sogned a treaty thjat established the line of 54'40', as the southern boundary of RUssia's territorial claim in North America. A simular agreement between Britain and Russia finally gave it clearly defined boarders, but it remained under joint British and US control.
panic of 1819
Financial collapse brought on by sharply falling cotton prices, declining demand for American exports, and reckless western land speculation.
second Bank of the United States
Iin 1816, this was established in order to bring stsbility to the national economy, serve as a depository for national funds, and provide the governement with the means of floating loans and trnsferring money across the country.
Deakl proposed by kentucky senator Henry Clay to resolve the slave/free imbalace in Congress that would result from Missouri's admission as a slave state; in the compromise of Marhc 20, 1820, Maine's admissino as a free state offset Missouri, and slavery was prohibited in the remainder of the Louisiana Territory north of the southern border of Missouri.
According to the missouri Compromise, any part of the Louisiana Purchase north of this line(Missouri's southern border) was to be excluded from slavery.
President James Monroe's declaration to Congress on December 2, 1823, that the American continents would be thenceforth closed to colonization but that the US would honor existing colonies of European nations.
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