In hte first half of the nineteenth century, he was the foremost spokesman for the American System. As speaker of the House in the 1820s, he promoted economic nationalism, "market revoluion", and the rapid development of western states and territories. He formulated the "second" Missouri Compromise, which denied the Missouri state legislature the power to exclude the rights of free blacks and mulattos. In the deadlocked presidential election of 1824, the House of Representatives decided the election. He supported John Quincy Adams, who won the presidency and appointed him to secretary of state. Andrew Jackson claimed that he had entered into a "corrupt bargain" with Adams for his own selfish gains.