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Principles of ABA
fluency terms of applied behaviour analysis
Terms in this set (152)
Who first established behaviour as the subject matter of psychology
Who established " the law of effect" detailed the role of consequences in learning"
The affects of the environment during an organisms lifetime.
What are ontogenetic varibles?
Behaviour relations that are based on the genetic endowment of an organism
What are phelogentic variables
Experimental analysis of behavior, radical behaviourism, applied behaviour analysis.
What are the three branches of behaviour analysis?
Which branch of behaviour analysis deals with the philosophy of a science of behaviour
Which assumption of science that states the simple explanations should be ruled out before more complex ones considered?
Which assumption of science states that conclusions are tentative and should be continually questioned?
Which assumption of science involving the objective observation of the phenomenon of interest.
Repeating experiments (and the I.V. Within experiments) in order to determine reliability of findings. Is defined as what?
Systematic manipulation of some measure of the phenomenon of interest in order to identify functional relations. Is defined as what?
Which assumption of science states: The world is a lawful and orderly place?
What are the seven dimensions of applied behaviour analysis?
Applied, behavioural, analytic, effective, conceptually systematic, general, technological.
If a study is applied it must......?
Have social significance and importance to the participants
If a study is analytic it must.....?
Demonstrate a functional relationship between events and behaviour.
If a study is behavioural it must......?
Involve a behaviour which is in need of intervention and is measurable (not a hypothetical entity)
If a study is conceptually systematic it must.....?
involve procedures that are described in terms of basic principles of behaviour.
If a study is effective it must........?
improve the behaviour to a practical degree.
If a study is general or offers generality it must............?
show effects that last over time, across environments, or across behaviours.
If a study is technological it must................?
Describe procedures in sufficient detail to permit replication.
The tendency of one event to vary in a regular way with one or more other events.
What is a functional relation
Explanations that place the causes of behaviour in unobservable mental processes.
Explaining the occurrence of behaviour by appealing to a description of the very same behaviour.
Behaviour and/or stimuli only observable by oneself.
Detectable interaction of a person and an aspect of the environment.
What is behaviour
Specific instance of a response class.
Collection of responses with common source of influence from environment.
Responses that share a common form.
Topographical response class
Responses that share common functional relations.
Functional response class
Any physical event that influences behaviour that is not part of behaviour (can include organism itself)
Part of the environment that affects behaviour
Group of stimuli share common (functional or formal) elements .
Stimuli which share formal stimulus properties
Formal stimulus class
Stimuli which share common function
Functional stimulus class
Learning, whereby a class of behaviour is modified by its consequences.
The unit of analysis involving antecedent, behaviour, consequence.
Three term contingency
Dependent relationship between response class and one or more stimulus classes.
A stimulus that follows behaviour and affects the probability it will occur again.
Addition of stimulus, following a behaviour resulting in increase in future frequency of behaviour.
Removal (or avoidance) of a stimulus, following a behaviour resulting in increase in future frequency of behaviour.
A consequence that increases probability of future response is a called a...
Unit of analysis describing a behaviour and consequence
Two term contingency
Behaviours that produce reinforcement independent of the mediation of others.
Type of reinforcer that does not depend its relation to other reinforcers.
Unconditioned (primary) reinforcer
Food, water, oxygen, warmth, sex are all types of....
Unconditioned (primary) reinforcer
Reinforcers that do not depend on a prior learning history
Unconditioned (primary) reinforcer
Reinforcers that depend on a persons learning history
Conditioned (secondary) reinforcers
A reinforcer that is effective due to its relation to some reinforcer
Conditioned (secondary) reinforcers
A learned reinforcer that has become effective for a wide range of behaviours under a variety of situations.
Conditioned (secondary) reinforcers
In escape, the behaviour _________ the stimulus
Stimulus that, when withdrawn after a behaviour, increases the future frequency of that behaviour
In avoidance, the behaviour _________ the stimulus
Prevents (or postpones)
Stimulus that when withdrawn after a behaviour, decreases the rate of the behavior.
A stimulus that when presented after a behaviour, decreases the rate of behavior.
The extent to which behavior persists when the maintaining reinforcer is withheld.
Resistance to extinction (RTE)
Reduced effectiveness of the reinforcer, because the organism has received too much of it.
Extinction of a behaviour maintained by sensory reinforcers. The sensory reinforcers are withheld.
Following extinction, a temporary re-appearance of the behavior.
A consequence that decreases the rate of behavior because of having bee paired with another punisher(s)
A stimulus that does not elicit or evoke a response prior to conditioning.
Neutral Stimulus (NS)
When a response is followed immediately by a stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of similar responses.
What is punishment
A negative punishment procedure involving the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a period of time
Time-out from positive reinforcement
Punishment that occurs independent of the social mediation of others
A stimulus change that has been paired with numerous unconditioned and conditioned punishers
A stimulus in the presence of which a response has a lower probability of occurrence than in its absence
Discriminative stimulus for punishment
An increase in the frequency of responding when an extinction procedure is initially implemented
The occurrence of a previously punished class of response
Recovery from punishment
Presentation of a stimulus, following a behaviour resulting in decrease in future frequency of behaviour
Removal of a stimulus, following a behaviour resulting in decrease in future frequency of behaviour
A consequence that decreases the probability of future response is a called a...
Frequency, latency, duration or amplitude of a response is altered by presence (or absence) of an antecedent stimulus.
An operant class that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than under others.
Responses that occur in the presence of the SD are reinforced, responses that occur in the presence of the S (delta) are not.
A stimulus in the presence of which some responses have been reinforced and in the absence of which those responses have not been reinforced.
The effect on responding when stimuli that share similar physical characteristics with the controlling stimulus evoke the same behavior as the controlling stimulus.
The tendency for an operant to occur in one situation, such as the presence of a red light, but not in other situations, such as the presence of a blue or green light.
SDs that have been altered in some way to make them more likely to prompt a correct response
Additional stimuli presented in conjunction with the SD to help a person make the correct response.
Extra stimulus prompts
Stimulus generalisation within a class of stimuli and stimulus discrimination between classes of stimuli
A class of stimuli that share common physical forms
Feature Stimulus Class
A class of stimuli that do not share common physical forms, but are determined via social convention
Arbitrary Stimulus Class
Prompts that involve the behaviour of another person to evoke a particular behaviour.
Prompts that involve changing an antecedent stimulus to evoke a particular behaviour.
Arrangements that specify which responses within an operant class will be reinforced
Schedules of reinforcement
A schedule of reinforcement which provides reinforcement for every occurrence of a behavior.
Continuous schedule of reinforcement
A schedule that requires a number of responses before reinforcement is produced.
A schedule that require a passing of a period of time before the next response produces reinforcement.
A schedule effect produced by both fixed interval and fixed ratio schedules
The response ratio or the time requirement can change from one reinforced response to another.
The response ratio or the time requirement does not change from one reinforced response to another.
A schedule that delivers reinforcers independently of responses but according to a period of time that varies.
Variable time schedules
A schedule that delivers reinforcers independently of responses but according to a period of time that stays constant.
Fixed time schedules
Abrupt increases in ratio requirements when moving from dense to thinner reinforcement schedules
Increasing response ratio or duration of time interval of a schedule of reinforcement.
Reinforcement remains available for a finite time following the elapse of the FI or VI interval.
Arranges a reinforcer for a response that occurs within some period of time since the last response (spaced-responding)
Differential reinforcement of high rates of behaviour (DRH)
Systematic thinning of each successive reinforcement opportunity independent of the organisms behaviour (ratio or interval).
Progressive rates of reinforcement
Arranges a reinforcer for a response that is preceded by some minimum time without responding (spaced responding)
Differential reinforcement of low rates of behaviour (DRL)
The reinforcement of responses lower than a predetermined criterion (number of responses) that is gradually decreased over successive sessions.
Differential reinforcement of diminishing rates of behaviour (DRD)
Two or more contingencies of reinforcement operating independently and simultaneously for two or more behaviors.
Concurrent Schedule of Reinforcement (conc)
Presents two or more basic schedules of reinforcement in an alternating, usually random, sequence. Schedules operate successively and independently. Correlated with SD's.
Multiple Schedules of Reinforcement (mult)
Same as Mult schedule BUT the Schedules occur in a specific order and conditioned reinforcement for first behaviour is the presentation of the second element and so on.
Chained Schedules of Reinforcement (chain)
Same as Mult schedule BUT schedules in operation are NOT correlated with discriminative stimuli
Mixed Schedules (mix)
Reinforcement provided whenever the requirement of either the ratio or an interval is met regardless of which met first.
Alternative schedule (alt)
Reinforcement provided whenever the requirement of both a ratio schedule and an interval schedule is met
Conjunctive schedule (conj)
Similar to the chained schedule except the schedule does not use discriminative stimuli
Tandem schedule (tand)
1)Value altering effects (reinforcing effectiveness) 2) Behaviour altering effects (current frequency)
Have the same effects that motivating operations have, but are due to a conditioning history.
Conditioned motivating operations
Increase in current frequency of behaviour (behaviour altering effect of MO)
Decrease in current frequency of behaviour (behaviour altering effect of MO)
Increase in reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus (value altering effect of MO)
Decrease in reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus (value altering effect of MO)
Behaviour under the control of contingency specifying stimuli.
Behaviour that has been shaped by direct acting contingencies.
Generalized rule following is an example of a............?
Higher-order response class
Rule-governed behaviour occurs not as a result of the contingency specified in the rule but as a result of a...?
History of rule following
Instruction following that depends on the social contingencies.
Behaviour which occurs due to reinforcement mediated by a listener.
Instruction following involving correspondences between verbal behaviour and environmental events
Verbal behavior that occurs as a result of the state of deprivation for the speaker + reinforcer is specified in the response
Verbal behavior under the control of a non-verbal discriminative stimulus which produces generalized conditioned reinforcement.
Verbal behavior which is controlled by verbal discriminative stimuli and have point to point correspondence and formal similarity with the response.
Verbal behavior controlled by a verbal discriminative stimulus which does not have point to point correspondence with the response.
Verbal behavior controlled by a verbal discriminative stimulus which has point to point correspondence, but NOT formal similarity.
Verbal behavior which consists of writing and spelling words that are spoken.
Three ways in which a listener is able to reinforce responses to private events?
Public accompaniment, collateral responses, common properties
Following training with if A then B, and if B then C the derived relations of B-A and C-B exemplify
Following training with if A then B, and if B then C the derived relation of A-C exemplifies
Following training with if A then B, and if B then C the derived relation of C-A exemplifies
Combined Transitivity and Symmetry
Following training with if A then B, and if B then C the derived relations of A-A, B-B, and C-C exemplify...
The demonstration of reflexivity, symmetry, transitivity, and combined symmetry and transitivity =
An equivalence class
Defining features of Relational Frames
Mutual entailment, combinatorial entailment, and transformation of function
Distribution of behaviour to reinforcement alternatives
Distribution of behaviour between or among alternative sources of reinforcement is equal to the distribution of reinforcement for the alternatives
The matching Law
Contingency in which reinforcement is not available for a specified period of time after switching to another alternative (in a concurrent schedule arrangement).
Change over delay (COD)
Change in one component of a multiple schedule that increases or decreases the rate of responding on that component is accompanied by a change in the response rate in the opposite direction on the other, unaltered component of the schedule.
Increase in the rate of responding in one setting as a result of a decrease in reinforcement (or an increase in punishment) in another setting.
Decrease in the rate of responding in one setting as a result of an increase in reinforcement in another setting.
Kind of learning in which one stimulus is paired with a second stimulus and, as a result, the first comes to elicit the same or similar response that the second elicits
Respondent (classical) Conditioning
Decrease in the strength of a CR as a result of presenting the CS alone.
A stimulus that does not elicit a response prior to conditioning
A response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
Conditioned response (CR)
A neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response through pairing with a US
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
Response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned response (UR)
Stimulus that elicits a behavior w/o any history.
Very weak intensities of a stimulus will not elicit a response but as intensity increases there is a point at which the response is elicited.
Law of threshold
As the intensity of the US increases so does the magnitude of the elicited UR
Law of intensity
As the intensity of the US increases, the latency of the appearance of the elicited UR decreases
Law of latency
When a UR is repeatedly elicited, responding occurs with smaller magnitude and longer latency. It may eventually fail to occur at all.
Following pairings of US and CS, the maximum magnitude of the CR is called the....
Four methods of pairing US and CS
Simultaneous, delayed, trace, backward
Pairing an existing CS with an NS to create a CS2
Higher-order conditioning (respondent)
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