1. imposed strict censorship codes 2. secret police supervised schools 3. teachers required to send detailed reports on students 4. political prisoners sent to Siberia 5. people could only speak Russian 6. persecuted Jews
What did Russia do in the late 1800's that improved the Russian economy?
doubled the number of industrial factories
Was Russia ahead of the other countries in the production of steel in the late 1800's?
What problems happened in Russia as a result of rapid industrialization?
1. poor working conditions 2. low wages 3. child labor
What did the Russian government do that forced organized strikes?
outlawed trade unions
What did the Marxist Revolutionaries believe the workers should do?
overthrow the Czar and rule the country
What were the 2 groups that Marxists were split into in 1903?
1. Mensheviks 2. Bolsheviks
Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks?
What did the Mensheviks support?
moderates who wanted broad support
What did the Bolsheviks support?
radicals willing to sacrifice all for change
In the late 1800's what did Russia and Japan compete over?
control of Korea and Manchuria
What did Japan do in 1904 after agreements were signed over Korea and Manchuria?
attacked Russia at Manchuria
What happened in Russia after Japan attacked them at Manchuria?
What did the workers do in 1905 that caused Bloody Sunday?
200,000 workers brought a petition to the Czar demanding better working conditions and a national legislature
What did Nicholas II do when the petition was brought to him?
ordered soldiers to fire on the crowd killing more than 1,000 workers
What did Bloody Sunday provoke?
series of strikes that spread across Russia
What did Nicholas II approve in 1905?
Duma, Russia's first parliament
Why did the Duma dissolve after 10 weeks?
Nicholas II was unwilling to share his power with parliament
What decision did NIcholas II make in 1914?
bring Russia into World War I
Why did Russia becoming involved in World War I hurt the country?
Russia was unprepared to handle the military and costs
How did Germany's victories over Russia affect the Czar?
revealed the weaknesses of the Czar's rule and his military leadership
Why did citizens of Russia demand an end to World War I?
prices were inflated and supplies of food and fuel decreased
Who was in charge of Russia in 1915, when Nicholas II moved his headquarters to the war front to rally the troops?
wife, Czarina Alexandra with the help of Rasputin
Who was Rasputin?
holy man with healing powers that eased the symptoms of hemophilia on Alexandra's son Alexis
What did nobles do in 1916 to Rasputin as he became more involved in political decisions?
What was the March Revolution of 1917?
riots flared up as women protested the shortages of bread and fuel
What did the Marxist Revolutionaries do in 1917 to Nicholas II?
executed him and his family ending his Czar's rule
What did the leaders of the Duma do after they executed Nicholas II?
established a provisional (temporary) government
Who was the leader of the provisional government?
What decision did Kerensky make that caused him to lose public support?
decided to continue fighting World War I
What did radical revolutionaries form as the war continued?
What were Soviets?
local councils consisting of workers, peasants, and soldiers
Who gained control of Russia in 1917?
Bolsheviks and Lenin
What did Lenin do in 1917?
arrested leaders of the provisional government
What did Lenin decide to do with the farmland?
distributed farm land among the peasants
What did Lenin decide to do with the factories?
gave control to the workers
How did some Bolsheviks respond to Lenin's policies?
objected to them leading to a civil war in Russia
Who won the civil war in Russia?
Lenin and the Bolsheviks (Red Army) crushed the White Army
What was Lenin's capitalist approach in 1921 called?
New Economic Policy (NEP)
What were the characteristics of Lenin's New Economic Policy?
1. peasants could sell their crops 2. government controlled major industries and banks 3. government controlled communication 4. small factories and farms could operate under private ownership 5. government encouraged foreign investment
What did Lenin do in 1922 to keep nationalism in check?
organized Russia into self-governing republics
What became the name of Russia after it was organized into self-governed republics?
United Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
What did Bolsheviks rename their party to in order to describe its classless society?
When Lenin suffered a stroke in 1922, who became the leader?
What did Stalin have by 1928?
absolute power in Russia
What did Stalin do in 1929?
exiled Trotsky from Russia
What is totalitarianism?
form of government in which the national government controls all aspects of society
How does a dictator unite people?
use of force
Who controls the economy under totalitarianism?
What are characteristics of totalitarianism?
1. uses police terror for obedience 2. strict censorship of the press 3. uses schools to indoctrinate youth 4. basic liberties are denied 5. country expects personal sacrifice 6. invests in advanced military weapons 7. uses propaganda to gain loyalty of people
What are 4 methods of control used in totalitarianism?
1. police terror to force obedience 2. indoctrination of government beliefs 3. control of mass media 4. religious and ethnic persecution
What are things Stalin's secret police did to maintain his power?
1. used tanks to stop riots 2. monitored telephone lines 3. read mail 4. planted informers everywhere
What was the Great Purge of 1937?
Stalin's plan to kill anyone who threatened his power estimated 8-13 million people executed
How did schools influence the Communist Party?
school children were taught the virtues of the Communist Party Teachers who questioned communism lost their jobs or were killed
What religion did the Soviets follow?
Stalinism Joseph Stalin was God
What did Soviets do towards other religions?
destroyed churches and synagogues killed religious leaders
What type of economy did Stalin call for?
command economy in which the government makes all economic decisions
What was Stalin's Five Year Plan?
1. set impossible goals to increase production of steel, coal, oil, and electricity 2. limited production of consumer goods
What happened in Russia as a result of limiting production of consumer goods?
shortages of food, housing, and clothing
Did Stalin's tough methods produce economic results?
What were collective farms?
large government-owned farms that were combined with privately owned farms
What did peasant farmers do to show their disapproval of Stalin's tactics?
killed their livestock and destroyed crops
What did the government set up in areas where farming was difficult?
state farms that operated like factories
What did Stalin provide for workers?
university and technical training
What were women expected to do during Stalin's five year plan?
join the labor force state provided child care
What were the weaknesses of the Weimer Republic that was set up in Germany after World War I?
1. lacked democratic tradition 2. Postwar Germany had to many political parties 3. Germans blamed the Weimer Republic for the humiliation at the Treaty of Versailles
Did Germany raise taxes after World War I to help pay for the debt?
No, it simply printed money
What happened to the value of the money Germany printed after they lost World War I?
money lost its value causing inflation
What was the Dawes Plan of 1923?
$200 million loan given to Germany from American banks to help stabilize their economy
What did the United States expect from Germany in regards to the Dawes Plan?
America set up a realistic schedule for Germany to pay war reparations that would help slow inflation
What did France and Germany agree to in 1925?
they would never wage war against each other
Why was America's economic prosperity important to the world?
if the U.S. economy weakened, so would the world economy
What were the weaknesses of the United States economy after World War I?
1. uneven distribution of wealth 2. overproduction by business and agriculture 3. Americans buying less causing factories to cut back on production
What did Americans do in 1929 that hurt the economy?
bought stock on margin
What caused the collapse of the United States economy?
investors began selling stock, but no one wanted to buy stock causing the stock market to collapse
What happened months after the stock market crashed?
1. unemployment increased 2. prices and wages decreased
What was the long business slump called?
How did the Great Depression affect Europe?
worried American bankers demanded repayment of their overseas loans causing them to withdraw money from Europe
How were countries able to keep their money in their own country?
high tariffs were used on imports causing a decline in world trade
What is fascism?
militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to the leader
How did World War I and Post World War I depressions benefit fascism?
caused people to lose faith in democracy fascists promised to restore the economy
What are characteristics of fascism?
1. loyalty to one's nation 2. one political party rule 3. authoritarianism is used to bring order 4. economy controlled by the state 5. uses censorship, secret police, and indoctrination
How is fascism different than communism?
fascists are only concerned with the nation communists unite workers internationally
What caused Fascism to occur in Italy?
1. earning no territorial gains at the end of World War I 2. rising inflation 3. rising unemployment
Who founded the Fascist Party in Italy in 1919?
What happened in Italy in 1922?
30,000 fascists demanded that Victor Emmanuel III put Mussolini in charge
How did Mussolini impose his will in Italy?
1. outlawed all political parties, except Fascism 2. censored communication 3. outlawed strikes
Why did Adolf Hitler join the National German Workers' Party (NAZI) in 1919?
he believed that Germany had to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism
What did Hitler and the Nazis attempt to do in 1923?
seize power in Munich
What happened when the attempt to seize power failed?
Hitler was placed in jail for nine months
What did Hitler write in jail?
Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
What were the components of Mein Kampf?
1. Germans (Aryans) were the master race 2. Non-Aryans were inferior 3. vowed to regain lands denied by Treaty of Versailles 4. Germany was overcrowded and needed more space
Why did Germany turn to Hitler in 1924?
German economy was collapsing causing civil unrest
What did Germany do for Hitler in 1933?
named Adolf Hitler Chancellor in Germany
Why was Hitler able to to win the next election?
fire destroyed the Reichstag building and the Nazis blamed the Communists for the fire
What did Hitler do to take full control of Germany?
1. banned all political parties except Nazis 2. created SS secret police 3. banned strikes 4. dissolved labor unions 5. used press and art for propaganda 6. books were burned that did not support nazism 7. churches were forbidden to criticize Hitler 8. school children were to join the Hitler Youth
Who did HItler and the Nazis blame for Germany's post World War I troubles?
What was Anti-Semitism?
hatred of Jews depriving Jews of most of their rights
What was the Night of Broken Glass in 1938?
Nazi mobs attacked Jews in their homes and destroyed Jewish owned buildings
Who was the military leader of Japan in 1930?
How did Hirohito plan to solve Japan's economical problems?
foreign expansion including conquering China
What did Hirohito believe Japan's empire would provide?
1. raw materials 2. markets for its goods 3. Japan space for its rising population
What did Japan invade in 1931, because it was rich in iron and coal?
What did Japan do in 1933 when the League of Nations protested Japan seizing Manchuria
withdrew from the League of Nations and invaded China in 1937
How did the League of Nations failure to stop Japan encourage the rest of Europe?
European Fascists to plan aggression of their own
What did Mussolini do in 1935?
What did the League of Nations do when Mussolini invaded Ethiopia?
What did Great Britain and France do for Mussolini hoping to keep the peace in Europe?
allowed Mussolini to have Africa
What did Hitler do in 1935 that was a clear violation of the Treaty of Versailles?
increased the size of Germany's army
What did the League of Nations do when Germany increased the size of Germany's army?
What did Hitler do in 1935 that the Treaty of Versailles forbid him to do?
Hitler moved into the Rhineland Britain and France allowed Hitler to do this to avoid war
How did Germany's reoccupation of the Rhineland encourage war?
1. strengthened Hitler's power and prestige in Germany 2. balance of power changed in Germany's favor 3. weak response by France and Great Britain
What did Japan and Italy do with Germany in 1936 as Hitler's power increased?