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Bio Exam 2
Terms in this set (44)
Know all the parts of a Prokaryotic and a Eukaryotic cell (names and functions).
What are the main similarities and differences between a Prokaryotic cell and a Eukaryotic cell?
Similarities: All cells have a plasma membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and DNA.
Differences: Do not have a membrane bound nucleus or membrane bound organelle
What are the main similarities and differences between an animal cell and a plant cell?
Plant:-A typical eukaryotic plant cell has some structures that an animal cell lacks•Such as chloroplasts, a large central vacuole, and a rigid cellulose cell wall for structural support
Both have: mitochondria, nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, ribosomes
What does selectively permeable mean?
certain substances can move across the membrane while others cannot
What are the two main parts of the plasma membrane?
proteins and phospholipids
Which types of solutes easily diffuse across the membrane with no help?
Which solutes require more help from the cell?
*Hydrophobic center is an effective barrier to most hydrophilic substances; they will need help from the cell (with very specific transport proteins!)
*Small, nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules (O2 and CO2) may easily pass.
*large, polar, hydrophilic molecules have diffuculty
Understand how the phospholipids are arranged in a plasma membrane and how that impacts which solutes can diffuse across.
The plasma membrane is made up of two layers of phospholipids with a hydrophilic, head and hydrophobic tail. This makes it a phospholipid bilayer, a mostly impermeable membrane.
Know the various functions of the proteins in the plasma membrane.
1. Transporters: gates, channels, &pumps that move specific substances across membrane (for large, charged, or polar substances)
2. Enzymes that regulate chemical reactions
3. Receptors that transmit signals from outside the cell (key to communication system)
4. ID tags used in immune system response
5. Cell to cell joining in multicellular organisms
6. Anchoring the cell (attaching to the cytoskeleton)
Distinguish between osmosis and diffusion; between passive transport and active transport; between diffusion and facilitated diffusion; between exocytosis and endocytosis.
1. Osmosis is when water moves in and out of the cell while diffusion is the movement of substances from a region of lower to higher
2. Passive transport requires no ATP for movement while Active Transport does
3. The difference between diffusion and facilitated diffusion is that facilitated requires transport proteins
4 .Exocytosis is used to eject substances out of cell while endocytosis is used to bring material in form outside the cell
Describe the 3 different kinds of endocytosis.
Phagocytosis ("cell eating")
Pinocytosis ("cell drinking")
3) Receptor-mediated endocytosis: a way to take in SPECIFIC molecules in a dilute solution
What do the words hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic solution mean?
Hypertonic- When the extracellular environment has a higher solute concentration
Isotonic- When the concentration of the intracellular and the extracellular have the same solute concentration
Hypotonic solution-Lower solute concentration than the cells interior
Describe what happens to plant and animal cells in hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic solutions. Where is the net flux of water in regards to the cell (i.e.
in to the cell, out of the cell, no net change)? What type of environments so plants and animals generally prefer?
A hypertonic solution:shrivels up; more water moves out. A hypotonic solution: swells; more water diffuses into. An isotonic solution: does not change; stays the same
What molecules can easily diffuse across the cell membrane? What molecules need the help of proteins or ATP?
small, nonpolar molecules such as O2 and CO2;water also passes this way, though inefficiently. Large polar, or charged molecules
Understand and define the laws of thermodynamics.
The First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy Conservation•Energy can be changed from one form to another•Energy cannot be created or destroyed
The Second Law of Thermodynamics•States that energy transformations increase disorder/entropy as some energy is lost as heat-Cells carry out thousands of chemical reactions, all of which release heat, because of the 2nd Law.-The sum of all of the chemical reactions which take place in your cells is your cellular metabolism
Distinguish between anabolic and catabolic reactions. (Know examples of these kinds of reactions.)
-Catabolic reactions break down large molecules into simpler ones, releasing energy -- like cell respiration.
--Anabolic reactions create large molecules from simpler ones (building reactions) and require energy-- like photosynthesis
Define cellular metabolism.
All chemical reactions that take place in cells
What is the structure of an ATP molecule? What part of the molecule stores the energy used for cellular work? Is ATP regenerated? During what process?
Breaking the terminal phosphate bond of ATP releases energy- a catabolic reaction! The energy is used to do work in the cell. ATP is then made again in cellular respiration!Our cells regenerate 10 million ATP every second! Without ATP, cells die!
Know what enzymes are and understand how they work as catalysts in biological reactions. What is a substrate and what is a product? What does it mean to say an enzyme is specific? What kind of macromolecule are enzymes?
•Even with constant energy supply, few metabolic reactions would occur without enzyme assistance.
•Enzymes are NOT energy, they are proteins that catalyze reactions.
•A specific enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction-Enzymes have unique three-dimensional shapes that determine which chemical reactions occur in a cell
What is the purpose of cellular respiration?
Cellular respiration is an catabolic reaction that releases energy (just like burning sugar), but it releases energy in a controlled manner so large amounts of ATP can be made.
To make ATP, breaking down organic food molecules
Is cell respiration aerobic or anaerobic?
What is the balanced summary equation for cellular respiration?
Glucose + Oxygen gas -----> carbon dioxide+water+atp
What fuel molecules can be used in cell respiration?
Explain the process of breathing and cellular respiration. How are they linked? How are they different?
Breathing supplies oxygen to our cells for cellular respiration and removes carbon dioxide as waste.
Explain the 2nd law of thermodynamics and how it relates to respiration. Why is this important to animals? Is the process 100% efficient?
•States that energy transformations increase disorder/entropy as some energy is lost as heat-Cells carry out thousands of chemical reactions, all of which release heat, because of the 2nd Law. Not a 100% efficient
Explain how photosynthesis and cellular respiration are linked.
photosynthesis makes the glucose that is used in cellular respiration to make ATP
How is cellular respiration similar to combusting fossil fuels? What can we do to combat climate change?
1.Both release carbon into the atmosphere.
2. Reduce fossil fuels, electric cars, renewable energy (biofuels)
What is the purpose of fermentation? Under what condition does fermentation occur?
The purpose of fermentation is to allow a small amount of ATP to be made, even when oxygen is not present. Does not support higher level eukaryotes.
Explain the two types of fermentation: What conditions are needed for them to occur. What are the products of each? And which type of organisms are they used in? Why is beer bubbly?
-In lactic acid fermentation, cells can make ATP, but they also produce lactic acid. (human muscle cells, yogurt, cheese, and sauerkraut)
-In alcoholic fermentation, cells can make ATP, but they also produce ethanol (alcohol) and CO2! (beer/wine making, fermented fruit)
What is photosynthesis and why is photosynthesis so important to life on Earth?
-Photosynthesis is the process by which certain organisms use light energy
•to make food for themselves (sugar); oxygen gas is made as a by-product!
What are autotrophs, heterotrophs, producers, and photoautotrophs?
1. autotrophs- self feeders 2.heterotrophs- organism that cannot produce its own food, relying instead on the intake of nutrition from other sources of organic carbon, mainly plant or animal matter.
3. producers- provide energy for food chain
4.Photoautotrophs- absorb light as energy
Why do larger eukaryotic organisms need oxygen?
They use oxygen to convert it into energy
What is the equation for Photosynthesis? Is the process anabolic or catabolic?
6Carbon dioxide + 6H2o ---->glucose + 6 oxygen gas
Where does photosynthesis occur?
Why are plants green?
Chlorophyll reflects green light
Which wavelengths and colors of light are used during the photosynthetic process? What is electromagnetic energy?
Photosynthesis mostly uses red-orange and blue-violet light. Green-yellow light is mostly reflected.
The electromagnetic radiation is the radiation released in the form of electromagnetic waves. ... The electromagnetic spectrum pertains to the entire range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. It includes gamma rays, X-rays, UV, visible light, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves.
The ultimate source of all the food we eat and the oxygen we breathe is?
Do plant cells have mitochondria? Chloroplasts? Both? Neither?
How does photosynthesis mitigate global warming?
Plants take carbon dioxide (CO2) out of the atmosphere to do photosynthesis, and thus help reduce the greenhouse gases warming the planet.
What is alternative energy?
anything that is not a fossil fuel
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
A structure in a cell that receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell.
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
A cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
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