Unit 6: Genetics
Terms in this set (31)
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
The scientific study of heredity
the offspring of many generations that have the same traits
mating of two organisms
Law of Segregation
Mendel's law stating that each organism inherits two copies of each chromosome (one from mom, one from dad) , each organism only donated one copy because the genes separate during meiosis.
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
An alternative form of a gene.
An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
All the genetic information in an organism; all of an organism's chromosomes.
An organism's genetic makeup for a specific set of genes ; allele combinations.
Physical characteristics of an organism
Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait.
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
a grid system for predicting all possible genotypes resulting from a cross
crosses that examine the inheritance of only one specific trait
a cross that examines the inheritance of two different traits
cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive phenotype
Law of Independent Assortment
allele pairs separate independently of each other during gamete formation, or meiosis
likelihood that a particular event will occur
exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during meiosis I
tendency for genes located close together on the same chromosome to be inherited together
organism whose genome contains a gene for a certain trait or disease that is not expressed in the organism's phenotype
Genes located on the sex chromosomes.
process that occurs in female mammals in which one of the X chromosomes is randomly turned off in each cell
heterozygous phenotype that is a blend of the two homozygous phenotypes
both traits are fully and separately expressed
traits produced by two or more genes
maps of the relative locations, or loci, of genes on a chromosome
chart that shows the presence or absence of a trait according to the relationships within a family across several generations
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs