portal of entry: nasal mucosa
THE most common RI
Many different viruses cause a cold
Rhinoviruses: portal is nasal mucosa and conjunctiva.
Occur in early fall and late spring in persons between ages 5 and 40
S/S: Rhinitis - Inflammation of nasal mucosa
Rhinorrhea: dryness or stuffy nose and throat, tearing and runny nose
Sinusitis: Inflammation of paranasal sinuses.
Infection or allergy obstructs sinus drainage
Acute: 1 day - 3 wks: facial pain, headache, purulent nasal discharge, decreased sense of smell, fever
Chronic: > 3 mos: nasal obstruction, fullness in the ears, postnasal drip, hoarseness, chronic cough, loss of taste and smell, unpleasant breath, headache
Pharyngitis: Mucosa of UR tract becomes red, swollen/ sore throat
Laryngitis: coughing and hoarseness
Headache/general malaise, maybe chills, fever, exhaustion
Spread person/person by fingers - so wash hands.
Tx: symptom relief: rest & antipyretics, antihistamines, decongestants, vitamin C
Most common vasodilatory shock
Infection with systemic inflammation & organ dysfunction (hypotension) despite fluid replacement
TX: Antibiotics, fluids, vasoconstrictors, O2, increase CO, coronary perfusion
bacterial or fungal - vasodilation - peripheral pooling = ↓ BP
Mechanisms: Endothelial cells release inflammatory mediators (NO)
increase metabolic rate of tissues, so need more oxygen - go anerobic - inflammation
Increases coagulation factors
S/S: unlike other shocks: vasodilation, edema, 3rd spacing, fever, ↑ WBCs, flushed skin, personality changes