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The Mesopotamian poet Enheduanma wrote an ode to what goddess of fertility?


The Fertile Crescent is comprised of two mountain ranges (the Taurus and Zagros) and what other region?


What part of the ancestors' bodies did the Natufians remove to place in their altar niches?

Colder and dryer

What best describes the changes in weather patterns in the Middle East during the Younger Dryas period?

Wheat and Barley

The first grains to be deliberately planted harvested and bred selectively were_______.

Lake Victoria

Where does the White Nile originate?


Fayyum was the first agricultural settlement in ______.


Until c. 3500 BCE, Mesopotamian towns such as Eridu were governed by ______.

Nomadic herders

Farmers in Mesopotamia who lost their land and went into debt to other farmers either became sharecroppers or ________.


People from Sinai traded ______.


People from Nubia traded ______.


People from Mesopotamia traded ______.


People from the Zagros Mountains traded ______.


People from Egypt traded ______.


The potters' wheel was introduced in the Mesopotamian city of Uruk and allowed for pottery to be standardized in size and shape.


Mesopotamian grains were generally made into one of two products for consumption: bread and ______.


Mesopotamian cities invented the first metal alloy c. 3300 BCE; this alloy was ______.


Mesopotamian cuneiform script was usually written on what material?


Mesopotamian cities expanded by creating ______ to make new farmland from lowlands from far away rivers.

The gods

To defend their power, Mesopotamian kings claimed that their authority to rule was derived from ______.


Narim-Sin, grandson to Sargon of Akkadia, claimed that he was king of how many worlds, or shores?

Create and publicize a law code

One of Hammurabi's most significant acts as king of Babylonia was to ______.


In the hierarchical class structures of Mesopotamian city-states, what social class ranked just below the ruling elite?

Took it for herself

After the death of her husband, the pharoah of Egypt, what did Hatshepsut do with the kingship?


The first Egyptian city was ______.


Unification of Egypt under the pharaohs involved linking upper and lower Egypt; where is lower Egypt located?


Pharaohs claimed to be descended from what god?

Bureaucratic documents

Egypt developed two writing systems, hieroglyphics and hieratic. What kinds of writings were written in hieratic?


Mesopotamians created the _____ writing system.


Egyptians created the _____ writing system.

Linear B

Mycenaeans created the _____ writing system.

Linear A

Minoans created the _____ writing system.


Phoenecians created the _____ writing system.

The Pyramids

What was Pharaoh Khufu's contribution to Egyptian history?


The Minoan State of Crete was particularly well known for building ______.


The Proto-Indo European language family originated in ______.

Chariots, composite bows, and iron swords, helmets, and protective armor

Three military technologies that gave the Hittites an advantage over the people they conquered were ______.


Smiths in Anatolia had mastered the art of creating hardened iron by 1500 BCE, which involved adding what element to bloom iron?


The Hyksos were a chariot-equipped people who migrated out of ______ and built a kingdom in the Nile Delta.


The Hyksos introduced what military technology to Egypt?


The battle of Qadesh in 1274 BCE was the largest chariot battle in the Middle East and was fought between Egypt and ______.


The Assyrians came to power through their economic prosperity from ______.


The Assyrian army utilized armor, helmets, and weapons made out of ______.


The people referred to as Phoenicians by the Greeks were referred to as the ______ by the Egyptians.


Phoenician city-states grew wealthy from trade in purple dye, foodstuffs, and what wood used for ship-building?


The first mention of the people called Israel occurs in 1207 BCE in the records of what conquering people?


According to the Hebrew Bible, Saul and David led a war of liberation for the people against what power in Syria?

Minoan Crete

Circa 1450 BCE, the Mycenaeans conquered what other Mediterranean state?


When the Greek city re-emerged in the eighth century BCE, the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet and added ______.


The Pattern of transitioning from animism to polytheism is tied to the transition from forager to cities, and to the rise of ______.

Ape-human split

The skull of Toumai dates from 6 to 7 million years ago and may possibly represent an _______ stage in human evolution.

Orrorin tugensis

Of the two earliest human forms that are known, which is probably the ancestor of modern humans?


Homo habilis was the first early hominin to add what item to its diet?


One of the first tools by hominins was a ______, used to remove meat from scavenged remains.

Arms are shorter in relation to the legs

Paleoanthropologists use various measurements to distinguish Homo erectus from earlier hominins, including increased brain capacity and what changes in the ratio of arm to leg length?

Homo erectus

What stage of hominin evolution seems to have first discovered how to control fire?

Southwest Asia

Upon emerging out of Africa, early hominins first spread to what other region?


Which of the following regions was the last to present evidence of hominin migration?

They were much shorter

What distinguishes Homo florensiensis from other descendants of Homo erectus?

Spear points

The Levallois area of Paris provided the first evidence of what technological development?

Skins and furs

Homo sapiens first used ______ for clothing, before they learned to weave.


Even before agriculture was developed, early humans used grindstones and stored grain.


The earliest trade item used to make tools was _____.


In the nineteenth century, anthropologists such as Bachofen believed that human communities went through a cycle of gender relations, beginning with men and women sharing work, then to a male-dominated society, the to a female-dominated society, then to a gender balanced society again.


Homo sapiens buried their dead with what kind of grave gift?

The Americas

Before it separated about 100 million years ago, Australia was a part of a land mass known as Sahul and connected to what other continents?


Aborigines of Australia developed the bow and arrow for hunting independently of other early humans in Africa.

Marriage partnerships

Clans within an Australian Aborigine tribe were associations based on ______.

Respected elders

Which members of the Australian Aborigine tribe performed the rituals associated with the Dreamtime?


Australian Aborigines developed agriculture c. 10,000 BCE


Aborigine settlements on the north coast of Australia traded with people on what island for knives, pottery, and cloth?

Rock paintings

The Bradshaws of northwest Australia are examples of what aspect of Aborigine culture?

Homo erectus

What stage of evolutionary development do Neanderthals and modern humans have in common?


Although possessing very different cultures, and the fact that Neanderthals were smaller, Neanderthals and Homo sapiens did interbreed.


The oldest known figurines made by humans, from Germany, were carved in what material?

Small figurines

Although seminomadic foragers, Paleolithic peoples invented fired ceramics to use them for what items?

Clothing of robes and hats

The cave painting of a ______ was found in La Marche.

Bison human hybrid

The cave painting of a ______ was found in Chauvet.

Bull hunt with injured human

The cave painting of a ______ was found in Lascaux.

Human, bird, fox, and antler hybrid

The cave painting of a ______ was found in Trois-Freres.


Paleolithic peoples used swan bones for what creative purposes?

For shamanistic spiritual rituals

Archaeologist J. David Lewis-Williams theorizes that the painted caves of the Paleolithic era were used ______.

Gradual increase in dryness around the equator

In addition to the obvious decreases in temperature that occurred during the Ice Age c. 23,000 years ago, what other major climate change began then?


During the Ice Age, the ______ was the first animal domesticated by humans


During the Ice Age, Paleolithic peoples used what to produce the first woven cloth?


North America had a temporary land bridge that connected it to _____ during the Ice Age.


Japan had a temporary land bridge that connected it to _____ during the Ice Age.


Indonesia had a temporary land bridge that connected it to _____ during the Ice Age.

Amber beads

Material evidence for human habitation in eastern Siberia during the Ice Age thawing period, c. 16,500 - 12,500 years ago, includes _____.


Clovis points were used as evidence to date the presence of humans in what areas?

Pushed the dates back by several thousand years, to before 11,500 BCE

What has the discovery of human settlements at Monte Verde in Chile and Taima Taima in Venezuela done to the theories of when humans first arrived in the Americas?

Linguistic studies

Recent theories that humans first settled in the Americas 40,000 to 30,000 years ago are based on what kind of evidence?

Ainu of Japan

Based on anatomical features, the fossil remains known as the "Spirit Cave Mummy" are believed to be a descendant of what people?

United States

Kennewick Man was discovered in what part of America?


It is possible that the city of Caral-Supe is as old as the pyramids of Egypt.

Mountain ranges

Cordilleras refer to what geographical feature common to both American continents


Snow, frost, and harsh winter conditions in South America are common throughout the continent, particularly in those areas west of the Amazon basin.

El Nino

What American weather pattern occurs in the cycles of every three to eight years and lowers the barometric pressure in the Western Pacific?

Hunting spears

The earliest hunters to the Americas used ______ to bring down their prey.

North America

The Clovis points are fluted oval spearheads found in ______.

A common ancestor

The Clovis culture was comprised of forager bands of extended families that met once a year to commemorate ______.


The fluted-point spear of Clovis would have been used to hunt large game by repeated ______.

Big game mammals

By 8000 BCE, what had disappeared from the Americas?


After large game became scarce c. 8000 BCE, spear points in the Americas were increasingly made of ______.

The dead began to be buried in graves

Archaeologists theorize that ceremonial centers in the early Americas were built near where ______.


In early grave sites, orange ochre was used to symbolize ______.

The feet

What part of the "white shaman" is depicted as feline?

Obsidian spiked

Early cultivation of maize included the replanting of the crop using what kind of sickles?

Make the kernels larger

Scientist Mary Eubanks believes that teosinte was combined with gamagrass because the latter contains genes that

Sweet Potato

_______ was the domestic staple crop of the Andes

Chili pepper

_______ was the domestic staple crop of Mesoamerica.


_______ was the domestic staple crop of Adena.


_______ was the domestic staple crop of the Caribbean.


The only large animals left in the Americas after 8000 BCE that were suitable for carrying heavy loads were

The development of new species

Evolution is a model proposed by Charles Darwin to explain _______.

Genetic Mutations

According to evolution, what caused variation among members of a species that eventually changed the characteristics of their population and produced new, distinct species?

Remodel the rest of nature to suit human purposes

A civilized society is one that seeks to ______.

Olduvai gorge in East Africa

Paleoanthropologists have now confirmed that the oldest known human bones were excavated around ______.


Modern human beings, or homo sapiens sapiens can trace their ancestors to ______.

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