The Fertile Crescent is comprised of two mountain ranges (the Taurus and Zagros) and what other region?
Colder and dryer
What best describes the changes in weather patterns in the Middle East during the Younger Dryas period?
Wheat and Barley
The first grains to be deliberately planted harvested and bred selectively were_______.
Farmers in Mesopotamia who lost their land and went into debt to other farmers either became sharecroppers or ________.
The potters' wheel was introduced in the Mesopotamian city of Uruk and allowed for pottery to be standardized in size and shape.
Mesopotamian grains were generally made into one of two products for consumption: bread and ______.
Mesopotamian cities expanded by creating ______ to make new farmland from lowlands from far away rivers.
To defend their power, Mesopotamian kings claimed that their authority to rule was derived from ______.
Narim-Sin, grandson to Sargon of Akkadia, claimed that he was king of how many worlds, or shores?
Create and publicize a law code
One of Hammurabi's most significant acts as king of Babylonia was to ______.
In the hierarchical class structures of Mesopotamian city-states, what social class ranked just below the ruling elite?
Took it for herself
After the death of her husband, the pharoah of Egypt, what did Hatshepsut do with the kingship?
Unification of Egypt under the pharaohs involved linking upper and lower Egypt; where is lower Egypt located?
Egypt developed two writing systems, hieroglyphics and hieratic. What kinds of writings were written in hieratic?
Chariots, composite bows, and iron swords, helmets, and protective armor
Three military technologies that gave the Hittites an advantage over the people they conquered were ______.
Smiths in Anatolia had mastered the art of creating hardened iron by 1500 BCE, which involved adding what element to bloom iron?
The Hyksos were a chariot-equipped people who migrated out of ______ and built a kingdom in the Nile Delta.
The battle of Qadesh in 1274 BCE was the largest chariot battle in the Middle East and was fought between Egypt and ______.
The people referred to as Phoenicians by the Greeks were referred to as the ______ by the Egyptians.
Phoenician city-states grew wealthy from trade in purple dye, foodstuffs, and what wood used for ship-building?
The first mention of the people called Israel occurs in 1207 BCE in the records of what conquering people?
According to the Hebrew Bible, Saul and David led a war of liberation for the people against what power in Syria?
When the Greek city re-emerged in the eighth century BCE, the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet and added ______.
The Pattern of transitioning from animism to polytheism is tied to the transition from forager to cities, and to the rise of ______.
The skull of Toumai dates from 6 to 7 million years ago and may possibly represent an _______ stage in human evolution.
Of the two earliest human forms that are known, which is probably the ancestor of modern humans?
One of the first tools by hominins was a ______, used to remove meat from scavenged remains.
Arms are shorter in relation to the legs
Paleoanthropologists use various measurements to distinguish Homo erectus from earlier hominins, including increased brain capacity and what changes in the ratio of arm to leg length?
They were much shorter
What distinguishes Homo florensiensis from other descendants of Homo erectus?
The Levallois area of Paris provided the first evidence of what technological development?
In the nineteenth century, anthropologists such as Bachofen believed that human communities went through a cycle of gender relations, beginning with men and women sharing work, then to a male-dominated society, the to a female-dominated society, then to a gender balanced society again.
Before it separated about 100 million years ago, Australia was a part of a land mass known as Sahul and connected to what other continents?
Aborigines of Australia developed the bow and arrow for hunting independently of other early humans in Africa.
Which members of the Australian Aborigine tribe performed the rituals associated with the Dreamtime?
Aborigine settlements on the north coast of Australia traded with people on what island for knives, pottery, and cloth?
The Bradshaws of northwest Australia are examples of what aspect of Aborigine culture?
What stage of evolutionary development do Neanderthals and modern humans have in common?
Although possessing very different cultures, and the fact that Neanderthals were smaller, Neanderthals and Homo sapiens did interbreed.
Although seminomadic foragers, Paleolithic peoples invented fired ceramics to use them for what items?
For shamanistic spiritual rituals
Archaeologist J. David Lewis-Williams theorizes that the painted caves of the Paleolithic era were used ______.
Gradual increase in dryness around the equator
In addition to the obvious decreases in temperature that occurred during the Ice Age c. 23,000 years ago, what other major climate change began then?
Material evidence for human habitation in eastern Siberia during the Ice Age thawing period, c. 16,500 - 12,500 years ago, includes _____.
Pushed the dates back by several thousand years, to before 11,500 BCE
What has the discovery of human settlements at Monte Verde in Chile and Taima Taima in Venezuela done to the theories of when humans first arrived in the Americas?
Recent theories that humans first settled in the Americas 40,000 to 30,000 years ago are based on what kind of evidence?
Ainu of Japan
Based on anatomical features, the fossil remains known as the "Spirit Cave Mummy" are believed to be a descendant of what people?
Snow, frost, and harsh winter conditions in South America are common throughout the continent, particularly in those areas west of the Amazon basin.
What American weather pattern occurs in the cycles of every three to eight years and lowers the barometric pressure in the Western Pacific?
A common ancestor
The Clovis culture was comprised of forager bands of extended families that met once a year to commemorate ______.
The fluted-point spear of Clovis would have been used to hunt large game by repeated ______.
After large game became scarce c. 8000 BCE, spear points in the Americas were increasingly made of ______.
The dead began to be buried in graves
Archaeologists theorize that ceremonial centers in the early Americas were built near where ______.
Early cultivation of maize included the replanting of the crop using what kind of sickles?
Make the kernels larger
Scientist Mary Eubanks believes that teosinte was combined with gamagrass because the latter contains genes that
The only large animals left in the Americas after 8000 BCE that were suitable for carrying heavy loads were
According to evolution, what caused variation among members of a species that eventually changed the characteristics of their population and produced new, distinct species?
Olduvai gorge in East Africa
Paleoanthropologists have now confirmed that the oldest known human bones were excavated around ______.