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Terms in this set (76)
What makes up an amino acid?
essential amino acids
cannot be made by the body; they must be acquired by our diet
non-essential amino acids
amino acids that the body can synthesize on its own
conditionally essential amino acids
an amino acid that is normally nonessential but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body's ability to produce it
- immune function
- Amino acid balance
- body structure and support
- growth, maintenance, and repair
What are the functions of proteins?
a situation in which protein intake exceeds what is excreted, such as during growth, recovery from illness, or pregnancy
positive nitrogen balance
a situation in which protein intake is less than what is needed; the body is breaking down more than its producing such as during illness or injury
negative nitrogen balance
- decreased risk of heart disease
- decreased rates of obesity
What are health benefits of being vegetarian?
- vitamin B12
- vitamin D
What are nutritional deficiencies associated with vegetarian diets?
contain all essential amino acids; high quality
proteins that lack one or more of the essential amino acids
two or more dietary proteins whose amino acid content, when combined, provide all of the essential amino acids
What are sources of complete proteins?
What are sources of incomplete proteins?
-rice and beans
What are sources of complementary proteins?
0.8g per kg of body weight
What is the RDA for protein?
- competitive athletes
What groups may nee additional protein?
protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)
Disorder that occurs with inadequate protein and/or energy consumption
condition of starvation characterized by emaciation or skeletal appearance
characterized by swollen appearance caused by low protein intake
- Physical Activity
What are the components of total energy expenditure?
BMR (basal metabolic rate)
energy metabolism that occurs after waking in the morning, at least 12 hours after a meal
REE (resting energy expenditure)
calories burned while sitting or sleeping
energy expenditure through voluntary physical effort
TEF (thermic effect of food)
the process of burning calories as you digest, absorb, transport, store, and metabolize food
- does not distinguish between fat and muscle mass (athletes)
- various ethnicities
What are limitations of BMI?
- body weight and muscle mass utilized
- duration/intensity of activity
- fitness level
- type of activity
What are factors that influence energy burned during physical activity?
- lean tissue mass (bone. organs. muscle)
- fat mass
What are components of body composition?
- increased risk of chronic disease
- visceral fat
- stored under abdominals
- hormone imbalance
What are causes of obesity in society?
hormone secreted by empty stomach; sends "I'm hungry" signals to the brain; increases with weight-loss
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)
neurotransmitter found in several brain areas, most notably the hypothalamus, increases food intake and blood glucose levels, promoting energy storage in fat cells
The physical need for food; triggered by low blood glucose and low glycogen
the psychological desire for food; triggered by sight/smell of food
- unrealistic and difficult to follow long term
- categorize foods as good or bad
Why are fad diets unsuccessful?
- promote small. moderate life-style changes
- decrease portion size, increase physical activity
- reduce energy in, increase energy burned
What are recommendations for weight loss in adults?
vertical sleeve gastrectomy
part of stomach removed; restriction
adjustable gastric band procedure
adjustable band fits around upper part of stomach (restriction)
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
- Small pouch created from stomach
- Part of small intestine bypassed
- Restriction and malabsorption
- weight maintenance
- gain height and grow into their weight
What are recommendations for childhood obesity?
- intracellular (60%)
- extracellular (40%)
What are the two compartments in which water is found?
- metabolic water from breakdown of carbs, fats and proteins
What are sources of water intake?
- air expiration
What are sources of water loss?
Hormone that stimulates the kidney to retain sodium ions and water
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
influences the absorption of water by kidney tubules
A serious reduction in the body's water content
abnormally low blood sodium levels; excess water
- pH balance
- nerve transmission
- gastric pH
What are functions of water/electrolytes?
- involved in metabolic processes
- don't provide energy
What if the function of vitamins/minerals?
Fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K
water soluble vitamins
B and C
- integrity of epithelial cells
- bone growth
- cell membrane
- gene regulation
- immune function
What are functions of vitamin A?
preformed vitamin A
dietary vitamin A in its active form; animal-based foods
converted to active form as needed; plant-based foods; (beta-carotene)
-fortified milk, cheese, cream, butter, eggs, liver
What are dietary sources of preformed vitamin A?
- green leafy vegetables
- orange and red produce
What are dietary sources of pro vitamin A?
Vitamin A deficiency
night blindness, dry skin
Vitamin A toxicity
Reduced bone mineral density, liver abnormalities, birth defects
stimulates cells of small intestine to produce calbindin, which increases calcium absorption
What id the role of vitamin D in calcium metabolism?
- decreased ability to convert vitamin D into its active form
- decreased likelihood of adequate exposure to sunlight
What are reasons for elderly needed extra vitamin D?
- cod liver oil
- sardines, salmon, shrimp
- juices/ milk
What are dietary sources for vitamin D?
What is a non-dietary source of vitamin D?
Vitamin D deficiency in children
Vitamin D deficiency in adults
- heart disease
Conditions associated with vitamin D deficiency
- ethnic populations with dark skin
- older adults
Who is most at risk for low vitamin D?
- acts as antioxidant
- enhances immune function
- required for nerve cell development
What are functions of vitamin E?
Who is most at risk for low vitamin E?
Who is most at risk for low vitamin K?
- blood clotting
- bone development
What are the functions of vitamin K?
link amino acids
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