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History 1100 Exam 1
Terms in this set (37)
What were Puritan beliefs and characteristics?
They were separatists.
They believed in the authority of the Bible.
They viewed society holistically.
They believed in covenants between God and His people.
They believed in hierarchy and inequality.
What were the characteristics of New England society?
They were equal numbers of men and women.
It was in a healthy place compared with Jamestown.
Life expectancy was long.
Half the population had migrated in family units.
A quarter of the families brought children and grandparents.
They attempted to convert American Indians.
Permanent settlement occurred quickly.
There was a strong connection between religion and society.
What were common characteristics of witches in New England?
almost all were female
childless or having fewer children than usual
suffering domestic troubles
accused of a previous crime
involved with doctoring or midwifery
of a lower social standing
of an abrasive character
What are possible explanations for the witch outbreak in Salem?
Tituba was an Indian/African slave who used voodoo.
There was a religious schism within the community.
There were problems with American Indians.
Women who challenged their role in society were dangerous.
Accusers stood to gain money and property.
List the four parts of the Navigation Acts.
Colonies could trade only with English ships.
Some items could be shipped only on English ships.
All goods had to pass through England to pay taxes before being shipped to America.
Policies were established in 1666 to safeguard against invasion.
What are the aspects of mercantilism?
-agriculture and manufacturing encouraged because each country needed to be self-sufficient
-need for precious metals as a true source of wealth
-more exports than imports in order to have gold on hand
-taxes should be high on manufactured goods and low on resources
-sea power necessary to control foreign markets
-colonies necessary to provide both markets and resources
-large population of domestic labor needed in the colonies
-policies enforced by a strong state
List the middle colonies.
What were common Quaker beliefs?
God speaks to everyone through an inner light.
God speaks directly to men and to women.
Their beliefs challenged the social order.
They refused to take oaths.
They were pacifists.
They believed in women's equality.
They attempted to treat Indians fairly and pay them for their land.
They opposed slavery.
They were liberal-minded and tolerant.
What were the advantages of slavery for owners?
Slaves provided long length of labor.
They came from the sugar islands already trained as slaves.
They knew how to grow rice, so did not have to be taught.
Africans were immune to malaria and yellow fever.
What were the disadvantages of slavery for owners?
Slaves could run away.
The initial cost of acquiring slaves was high.
Slaves could revolt against their masters.
List the new slave codes.
-Slaves could not gain significant wealth on their own through trade.
-Planters kept control over how much slaves could trade.
-Slaves could not have clothes made from material that cost over a certain amount of money.
What were the Restoration Colonies? How were they part of the Restoration?
The Restoration Colonies were those colonies that received charters after the English Restoration in 1659. Charles II gave charters as thanks for those who had supported his return to the crown. These colonies included New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and the Carolinas (North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia).
How did the development of rice lead to an increase in slave labor? Explain how Carolina society developed because of the connection between rice and slaves.
The development of rice as a cash crop dramatically increased the number of slaves needed in South Carolina during the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries because the crop was very labor-intensive. Many slaves already knew how to grow rice, so owners used the slaves' prior knowledge to develop their agricultural system. Because rice production called for such a large labor force, African and African-descended slaves quickly outnumbered the white population. This led to the development of slave codes with which to control the population, and to a significant amount of capital tied up in slaves, leading to the slave power.
What was the Stono Rebellion? What was the significance of it?
The Stono Rebellion was a rebellion of slaves near Charleston, South Carolina, against their owners and other whites in September 1739. The rebellion began when twenty slaves robbed a store by the Stono River bridge about twenty miles outside of Charleston, on a Sunday when their owners were in church. The slaves killed two slaveholders, stole guns, and tried to escape to Spanish Florida to gain freedom. As the slaves fled, they burned plantations and killed whites; the number of followers increased to about eighty runaway slaves. The slaves were eventually captured and decapitated. This rebellion terrified the outnumbered whites, led to a ten-year moratorium on slave imports through Charleston, and created a need for harsher slave codes, which further limited the amount of money slaves could make and banned educational opportunities.
List the five myths regarding the New World.
Columbus discovered America.
Columbus was a great hero.
American Indians were heathens and uncivilized.
Columbus died penniless, not knowing he had discovered a New World.
Columbus discovered America, and then the Pilgrims came.
List the four religious reasons for Columbus's interest in the New World according to The Book of Prophecies.
Christianity must be spread throughout the world.
The Garden of Eden must be found.
A last crusade must take back the Holy Land from the Muslims.
A Last World emperor must be chosen.
What were the reasons for European exploration of the New World?
water passage to Asia
need for land
How was the Native American population arranged?
What were the three major types of European-Indian interactions?
French/Indian—equals and trade partners
English/Indian—students and instructors, receivers and food providers
What are the three Bs of assimilation?
Explain the differences between chiefs, sachems, and Manitous.
Chiefs were political leaders, while sachems were religious leaders. Chiefs could be leaders of specific villages or have particular roles within an American Indian tribe, such as war leader. Manitous were considered not part of Heaven or Earth but maintaining a spiritual role in between the two realms. Europeans were labeled Manitous at first because American Indians lacked the words to describe them otherwise.
What is assimilation? How did the Spanish, French, and English attempt to assimilate the Native people?
Assimilation is the process by which individuals or groups of differing ethnic heritage are absorbed into a society's dominant culture, often losing marks of cultural identity such as language, religious practices, and gender and sexual roles. The three Bs of assimilation are bacteria, bullets, and baptism. These included infecting Native populations (either intentionally or unintentionally) with diseases, waging warfare on the tribes, and converting them to Christianity.
What were the problems with establishing a permanent settlement in Jamestown?
diseases from the terrain
too many of the wrong type of people
the communal plan
What were the advantages of indentured servitude to the owners?
cheap source of labor
little cost, because there was no incentive to keep servants well fed or healthy
What were the disadvantages of indentured servitude to the owners?
People refused to sign on as indentured servants.
Servants escaped before completing their terms of service.
They were required to give servants a financial reward after the term of service was over.
List characteristics of the Chesapeake in the early seventeenth century.
six people per square mile
population lived along rivers and streams
parental death was common
primitive living conditions
ratio of four men to one woman
most men were unmarried
marriage age was higher than in other areas
premarital pregnancy was common
Why did John Smith and Sir Thomas Dale have to establish a military routine for Jamestown? How did those routines help change Jamestown?
Smith and Dale each established a military routine because during the first decade there was a distinct lack of motivation to work in Jamestown. Many of the people who migrated to Jamestown were looking to get rich quick and were not interested in working hard for a communal company. Forcing the settlers to work on a military regimen helped saved the colony, because they were able to produce enough food and protection for the community to survive.
What role did reciprocity play in misunderstandings between the English settlers and the American Indians?
American Indians believed in reciprocity as a method of negotiating power relationships. The English often misunderstood these acts and believed they were gaining power over the Native people. One example of this misunderstanding occurred when Pocahontas and her uncle traveled to England and gave gifts to the English king. When the king failed to reciprocate with gifts in return, Opechancanough believed the king lacked power. Jamestown settlers believed that Pocahontas saved John Smith from being killed when, instead, Smith mostly likely had undergone an adoption ceremony that promised protection rather than her undying love for him. Finally, Native women believed that engaging in sexual relationships with Englishmen allowed the women to take power over the men, while Englishmen believed they were the ones who gained power by having sex with Native women.
How did tobacco "save" Jamestown? What problems did the introduction of tobacco cause for indentured servants and slaves?
When John Rolfe introduced the tobacco strain in 1612, tobacco then provided a cash crop for Jamestown that encouraged the settlers to work rather than play. Tobacco became a very important cash crop and caused settlers to plant it in every possible piece of unused land available. Settlers lived on rivers and streams for easy transportation of the crop. A shift from indentured servitude to slavery occurred as tobacco became more important to the colony. Profits for the crop were astronomical compared to profits for farmers at home. This caused overproduction, which led to a drastic drop in prices, but tobacco still became a crop that helped establish Jamestown as a permanent settlement by the mid-1600s. Tobacco increased the need for cheap labor, which increased the demand for indentured servants and African slaves.
What were the reasons for the switch from indentured servants to African slavery during the seventeenth century?
Many English and other Europeans refused to sign up to be indentured servants, so there were not enough people to fill the labor needs. Often, servants escaped before completing their term of service, and employers lost out on valuable years of service. Many employers were unwilling to fulfill the required financial reward after the term of service was over. Slavery was seen as a cheaper, more reliable, and safer method of labor by the end of the seventeenth century.
What role did women play in colonial Virginia? How were white women, African women, and American Indian women viewed in society?
There were very few white women in colonial Virginia, so white women very quickly became wives of settlers. There was a distinction between good wives (white women of the upper class) and nasty wenches, women who were not white or who challenged traditional gender roles (such as Thomas//Thomasina). African women were almost always slaves. Their children became slaves, regardless of the status of the father, because of matrilineal passage. Native women had different gender roles than white women, so there were common misconceptions. Sexual encounters between white men and American Indian women often meant that white men believed they had control over the women, while the women felt the opposite. Indian women passed their names on to their children with matrilineal lineage.
Describe Bacon's Rebellion. What was its larger significance in the development of colonial Virginia?
Bacon's Rebellion was a clash between elite planters along the coast of Virginia and less wealthy planters in the interior that occurred in 1676. Nathaniel Bacon asked Governor Berkeley for permission to raise a militia to fight American Indians who were threatening Bacon's lands. Berkeley refused, so Bacon raised a militia on his own and fought a group of Indians that in fact had not been involved in previous attacks. Berkeley condemned Bacon, and Bacon marched on Jamestown and burned it to the ground. The rebellion demonstrated continued conflict between whites and American Indians and class differences among the whites. This eventually led to the development of stricter slave codes that codified what being a free Englishman meant.
How did the Protestant Reformation influence the religious landscape in Europe? How did those influences lead to the English Reformation? How did the English Reformation influence the beginning of the Puritan religion?
The Protestant Reformation caused a clash between Catholics and Protestants, which began to break down the power of the Catholic Church. The English Reformation emerged from the larger Protestant Reformation and allowed King Henry VIII to break away from the Catholic Church. The English Reformation led to intense bloodshed and upheaval in English society and religion. Puritans wanted to escape this trauma and sought to separate themselves from what they considered the corrupt Anglican and Catholic Churches.
Who were the Pilgrims? Who were the Puritans? What were the differences and similarities between the two?
Pilgrims were a relatively small group of separatists who left England and moved to Holland before leaving for America in 1619 and arriving in Massachusetts in 1620. These three hundred immigrants were mostly lower-middle-class or middle-class and were very religious. Puritans were less focused on religion as a reason for migration and were more interested in building a viable economic colony than the Pilgrims were. Many Puritans were from the upper-middle class and came to New England during the great Puritan migration (about 1630-1641).
Who was Anne Hutchinson? How did she present a challenge to Puritan New England?
Anne Hutchinson was an English Puritan, the daughter of a minister, who migrated to New England during the great Puritan migration in 1635. She was a member of John Cotton's congregation and had the reputation of being a prophet. She held religious and prayer meetings in her home. These meetings were well attended by both men and women of the town, but Hutchinson got into trouble when she accused some Puritan ministers of relying too much on the covenant of good works rather than on the covenant of faith (or grace). She was brought to trial in 1637 for having unsound theology and claiming to be a prophet. Her theology was found to be sound, but she was convicted of behaving as a prophet when she was not and was exiled to Rhode Island. As a woman, her religious meetings and criticism of Puritan ministers were undermining the authority of male ministers in the town. She challenged the norms of Puritan society as a woman and as a heretic.
What was the Half-Way Covenant? What was the challenge it was supposed to solve and how successful was it in solving the problem?
The Half-Way Covenant was an attempt to save New England both religiously and politically. As new generations of Puritans were born, the children became less zealous than their parents. New Englanders were still legally required to attend church, but fewer wanted to undergo the conversion process. Solomon Stoddard, a well-known and respected minister in Massachusetts, created the Half-Way Covenant in 1662. Grandchildren of the original settlers could not be baptized because their parents were not baptized, never having gone through the conversion experience. If people accepted the Half-Way Covenant, they could be baptized whether or not they had a conversion experience. Those who accepted the covenant and agreed to follow the creed and rules of the church could become church members without claiming a spiritual experience. These half-members could not vote on any issues within the church, although all members could participate in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. This saved the community religiously and demonstrated how important religion was to the Puritan way of life.
What were the differences between the Massachusetts Bay Charter and the Rhode Island Charter? How did they demonstrate different attitudes toward American Indians?
The Massachusetts Bay Charter that established the Massachusetts Bay Colony determined that land in New England could be taken if it was not being used at the time. The Rhode Island Charter, written by Roger Williams, attacked this idea and made it customary for inhabitants to pay Indians for that land. Indian tribes in New England were under immense pressure to accept missionaries and Christianity. The Puritans viewed themselves as harbingers of civilization, helping the savages become more civilized by getting them to accept a European lifestyle. A number of military clashes occurred as a result of this thinking. Two examples of this warfare include the Pequot War and King Philip's War, which took place the same year as Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia.
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