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Bio 112 Chapter 29
Terms in this set (79)
Like prokaryotes, most fungi are ________ that obtain nutrients from dead organic matter.
Many fungi form ________ with other organisms such as terrestrial plants. `
All fungi are ________ (prokaryotes or eukaryotes?).
Fungi share a key characteristic in how they obtain nutrients. They are ________.
Digestion in fungi occurs _______ (intracellularly or extracellularly?)
At some stage in their life, fungi have a cellular feature present in bacteria, certain protists, and plants. This feature is a ________.
Cell walls of most fungi contain _________ , which is highly resistant to decomposition. This same material is also part of the protective covering of organisms in phylum _______.
Unicellular fungi are the ________.
Multicellular fungi have a body consisting of threadlike filaments called ________.
Molds form a tissue-like network called a _____.
The fungi called coenocytes have hyphae that lack ________.
Most fungi reproduce by microscopic structures called ________.
The large part of the common mushroom is called a _______ in which _______ are produced.
fruiting body; spores
Yeasts reproduce asexually by forming ______ . Many species of multicellular fungi reproduce asexually by producing __________.
Most fungal cells contain a ________ nucleus.
Hyphae that contain one nucleus per cell are called _____. Those hyphae with cells containing two genetically distinct sexually compatible nuclei are called ______.
Fungi communicate chemically by secreting signaling molecules called ________.
Unlike plants, the walls of fungal cells do not contain ________.
t is hypothesized that the common ancestor of all plants, fungi, and animals was a ________.
Based upon their characteristics, fungi are considered to be more closely related to ________ (plants or animals?)
Based on the characteristics of sexual spores, fruiting bodies, and molecular data, fungi are generally assigned to the five phyla:
Chytridiomycota; Zygomycota; Ascomycota; Basidiomycota; Glomeromycota
When individuals within a given taxa share a common ancestor they are said to be ________.
About 95% of all fungi have been assigned to phylum __________ or phylum ________. These phyla have hyphae with _________ and a prolonged __________ stage during their sexual life cycle.
Ascomycota; Basidiomycota; septa; dikaryotic
Chytrids are the only group of fungi to produce a _______ cell.
Molecular evidence suggests that chytrids were the _______ fungal group to evolve.
Most zygomycetes are ________ that feed on decaying plant or animal matter.
The zygomycete species ________ is the well-known black bread mold.
The symbiotic relationships between fungi and the roots of plants are called ________.
Glomeromycetes and plants exchange nutrients in structures called _______.
When both partners in a symbiotic relationship benefit it is said to be a _______ relationship.
Ascomycetes produce sexual spores in sacs called _________ , and asexual spores called ________ at the tips of ________.
asci; conidia; conidiophores
As the asci develop, they are surrounded by intertwining hyphae that develop into a fruiting body known as an _______.
Asexual reproduction in yeast occurs primarily by _______.
Basidiomycetes develop an enlarged, club-shaped hyphal cell called a __________ , on the surface of which four spores called _________ develop.
What we call a mushroom grows from a compact mass of hyphae. A mushroom is more formally referred to as a _____.
Most fungi are free-living decomposers that adsorb nutrients from organic wastes and dead organisms. In the process, they release _________ to the atmosphere and return _________ to the soil.
carbon dioxide; minerals
Symbiotic relationships have formed between certain fungi and animals; the fungi break down _________
and ________ that the animals ingest, but are incapable of digesting.
Glomeromycetes form ________ connections inside the roots of plants, but species of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes form ________ that coat the surface of roots.
The phototroph portion of the lichen is usually a _________, or a __________ , or ____________. The fungus is sometimes a basidiomycete, but usually is an ___________.
green alga; cyanobacterium; both; ascomycete
Lichens reproduce asexually by fragmentation wherein pieces of lichen called ________ break off and begin growing after landing on a suitable substrate.
Cellulose is the most abundant organic compound on earth. The second most abundant is _______.
__________ are the fungi used to make wine and beer, and to produce baked goods. Wine is produced when the fungus ferments ___________, beer results from fermentation of ____________, and ______________ bubbles cause bread to rise.
yeasts/Saccharomyces; fruit sugars; sugar from starch in grains; carbon dioxide
In what way(s) are fungi different from plants?
Fungi are not photosynthetic; Fungi have a different mode of reproduction; Fungi have a different body structure
Roquefort and Camembert cheeses are produced using the genus __________, and the genus ___________ is used to make soy sauce from soybeans.
Some of the most toxic mushrooms, such as the "destroying angel" and "death cap", belong to the genus ________.
The chemical ________ found in some mushrooms causes hallucinations and intoxication.
Alexander Fleming noticed that bacterial growth is inhibited by the mold __________, and this discovery eventually led to the development of the most widely used of all antibiotics, ___________.
Penicillium notatum; penicillin
An ascomycete that infects cereal plant flowers produces a structure called an _______ where seeds would normally form. When livestock or humans eat grain or grain products contaminated with this fungus, they may be poisoned by the extremely toxic substances contained therein.
Some fungi can biodegrade pesticides, herbicides, ________ and ________.
coal tars; petroleum
All plants are susceptible to fungal diseases. Fungi enter plants through _____, or wounds, or by dissolving a portion of cuticle with an enzyme.
are heterotrophs; are eukaryotes; possess cell walls; digest food outside their bodies
A lichen can be composed of a/an:
alga and fungus; photoautotroph and fungus; cyanobacterium and ascomycete; alga and basidiomycete; alga and ascomycete
A common fungal infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth, throat, or vagina is:
candidiasis (yeast infection)
Fungal hyphae that contain two genetically distinct nuclei within each cell are known as:
dikaryotic; n + n
Fungi can reproduce:
sexually; asexually; by spore formation; by simple division; by budding
The black fungus growing on a piece of bread:
can reproduce asexually; has coenocytic hyphae; is probably in the phylum Zygomycota
The genus Penicillium:
is an ascomycete; produces the antibiotic penicillin
Lichens can be used as indicators of air pollution because they:
cannot excrete absorbed elements;
A mass of filamentous hyphae is called a(n):
Yeast participates in the brewing of beer by:
fermenting grain sugars; producing ethyl alcohol
A fungus infection throughout the body obtained by exposure to bird droppings is likely:
Chytrids (aka chytridiomycetes):
are fungi; inhabit damp or wet environments; have flagellated spores
Fungi can be found growing:
in moist habitats; in tree and plant roots; in herbivore digestive tracts; where organic material is available; in underground ant colonies
The cell walls of fungi contain:
complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides); chitin
are multinucleate; lack septa
The clade Opisthokonts includes:
fungi; animals; choanoflagellates
Terms associated with sexual reproduction in fungi include:
plasmogamy; karyogamy; zygote nucleus
Features some fungi share with some plants include:
a cell wall; asexual reproduction; production of spores
Terms associated with basidiomycetes include:
dikaryotic mycelium; shelf fungi; karyogamy; gills; fruiting body
Mycorrhizae are symbiotic associations between:
fungi and plant roots
eukaryotes and opisthokonts
This fungi does not have a mycelium?
A cell described as n + n is:
With the exception of chytridiomycetes, fungi are generally dispersed by:
form arbuscular endomycorrhizae
The ascomycete sexual life cycle typically includes:
the production of eight haploid ascospores within an ascus
A compound organism consisting of a photoautotroph and a fungus is called a(n):
Mutualistic associations between fungi and the roots of plants are called:
When a fungus infects a plant, it:
enters leaves or stems through stomata
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