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clear, insoluble, appears thin and pale pink with disclosing solution-can take on extrinsic stains
mineralized dental biofilm, forms on natual teeth dentures and other dental prostheses, significant in the progession of inflammatory periodontal disease but not the causative factor itself
Calculus forms from what?
forms from the deposition of minerals primarily calcium and phosphate into th ebiofilm organic matrix
How does calculus form?
Pellicle forms first, biofilm formation, mineralization, pellicle layer forms immediately, bacterial colonies form in the pellicle, colonies grow together forming a cohesive biofilm layer, MINERALIZATION centers form within 24-72 hours, centers eventually grow and unite, filamentous microorganisms provide the matrix for the deposition of minerals, pellicle may also mineralize explaining the stregth of the bond to tooth surface, mineral source for supraginigival calculus is saliva, mineral source for subgingival calculus is the gingival sulcus fluid and inflammatory exudate
Light calculus formers have?
higher levels of parotid pyrophosphate which is an inhibitor of clacification
Calculus formation time dependent on
individual tendency, roughness of the tooth surfaces, quality and character of home care efforts
located on the clinical crown APICAL to the margin of the gingiva, extending nearly to the bottom of the pocket, on exposed root surfaces and dental implants
Pellicle attachment then calculus:
calculus attachment is superficial, occurs most frequently on enamel and newly scaled root surfaces, removed readily
Areas of attachment
irregularities on the tooth surface: cracks, lamellae, and carious defects, cemental irregularities, difficult to be certain removal is complete
Direct contact between calcified matix and the tooth sureface occurs by:
crystals interlock with mineralizing biofilm, difficult to discern between calculus and cementum
What are the components of calculus?
Inorganic-mostly crystalline hydroxyapatite: mainly calcium, phosphorus, carbonate, sodium, magnesium, postassium; trace elements; fluoride
Calcification levels of Enamel, Dentin, Cementum and bone, Calculus:
Cementum and bone 45-50%
Color of supragingival calculus
white, creamy yellow, or gray; may be stained by tobacco, food or other pigments; slight deposits may not be seen until air dried
Color or subgingival calculus
light to dark brown, dark green, or black; stains derived from blood pigments from diseased pocket
Shape of supragingival calculus
amorphous, bulky; gross deposits may form interproximal bridges between adjacent teeth or extend over the margin of the gingiva
Shape of Supragingival calculus is determined by:
anatomy of the teeth
countour of the gingival margin
pressure of the tongue, lips, and cheeks
Shape of the subgingival calculus
flattened to conform with pressure from the pocket wall: crusty, spiny, or nodular; ledge or ringlike; thin, smooth veneers; finger-and fern like; individual calculus islands
Consistency and texture of supragingival calculus
moderately hard; newer deposits less dense and hard; porous surface covered with non-mineralized biofilm
Consistency and texture of subgingival calculus
brittle, flint like; harder and more dense than supragingival; newest deposists near bottom of pocket are less dense and hard; surface covered with dental biofilm
Size and Quantity of supragingival calculus
direct relationship to oral hygiene care; character of diet; increased amount in tobacco users
Size and Quantity of subgingival calculus
related to pocket depth; incerased amount related to age; related to diet, oral care; primarily related to the development and progression of periodontal disease
Distribution of supragingival calculus
coronal to the marginal gingiva; may cover a large portion of the crown or form a thin line at the margin; sysmmetrical except when affected by malposed teeth, poor oral hygiene, abrasion from food; occurs with or without sub deposits; related to location of salivary gland ducts
Distribution of subgingival calculus
apical to the gingival margin; extends to the bottom of the pocket and follows the contour of the attachment; heaviest on proximal surfaces, lightest on facial surfaces; occurs with or without associated supragingival deposits
Ways to detect supragingival calculus
can be seen directly or indirectly with the mouth mirror; visual detection must be accompanied by air and exploring; with the use of light through the anterior teeth during transillumination, calculus can be seen as an opaque shadow
Ways to detect subgingival calculus
may be seen just beneath the gingival margin because of loosely adapted, inflammed marginal tissues; may also reflect through thin marginal tissues; air can also aid in deflecting tissue; must use mirror, light and explorer
Calculus is a predisposing factor
in pocket development providing a haven for the collection of bacterial masses on its rough and porous surface
What is a denta stain?
a discolored spot or area on a tooth or restoration; significance is primarily cosmetic; only detrimental affect is related to the biofilm or calculus in which the stain occurs
Where can dental stains occur?
may adhere directly to the tooth surface or restoration; contained within calculus and soft deposits; incorporated within the tooth structure or restorative material
develop from within the tooth (ALWAYS intrinsic and usually discolorations of the dentin reflecting through the enamel)
How can you identify the source of stains?
HHx review: developmental complication, medication, use of tobacco, fluoride history
Diet: stains from foods, liquids, supplements
Oral Hygiene Habits: frequency of plaque removal
What are the most common extrinsic stain colors?
yellow, gree, black line stain, light brown to black
A green stain indicates
embedded in the biofilm
poor oral hygiene, chromogenic bacteria, and gingival hemmorrhage found primarily in children, may be demineralized underneath
A black line stain indicates
calculus like stain
occurs along the gingival 1/3 continuous line
occurs more often in children and mostly females
frequently found in clean mouths
A brown stain indicates
stannous floouride; food stuff such as tea, coffee, soy sauce; chlorhexidine rinse; betal leaf in eastern cultures
A metallic stain indicates
industrial exposure (copper, nickel, cadmium)
medications/supplements (iron, maganese)
Exogenous Intrinsic stains
restorative materials such as amalgam may impart a gray or black discoloration;
endodontic therapy and materials can cause yellow, brown, black, or a combination;
stain in dentin form a carious lesion
Endogenous stains include
hereditary: ie. amelogensis imperfecta or dentinogenesis imperfecta, enamel hypoplasia
other systemic sources: blood borne pigment
Pulpless teeth color
range form light yellow, to brown, gray, reddish brown, bluish-black, orange or green (color changes form pulp tissue breakdown)
occuring when mother has taken it during pregnancy or administered to child during infancy or earyl childhood (color may be light green to dark yellow to grayish brown)
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