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Unit 3 Review
Terms in this set (44)
Using one's authority for personal gain. An example of this is a mayor hiring someone for a city job they don't deserve because they offered him money.
Organizations in which "bosses" offer services in exchange for votes. The candidate they rally votes for then provide the bosses with monetary rewards.
Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall
New York city's infamous political machine and leader.
Small, low-cost and low-quality rentals that the urban poor lived in. Often families shared one small room with no windows or bathrooms. Conditions were dangerous.
This led to the creation of poor neighborhoods, or slums, and tenement housing.
Urbanization Pull Factors
People moved to cities in search of work/jobs. Others moved to the cities because the railroad made it easier or for the enjoyment of cultural opportunities.
Came from Great Britain, Ireland, and Germany. Most spoke English.
Came from Southern and Eastern Europe (Poland, Russia, Italy, Greece). Most were Catholic, Jewish, or Greek Orthodox. Many spoke no English. Most were desperately poor.
Chinese men began arriving during the California Gold Rush and helped build the transcontinental railroad. Afterwards they faced prejudice and discrimination.
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
Banned almost all immigrants from China and was the first restriction ever placed on immigration to the US.
Cut off immigration of Japanese, unless men were returning with wives.
Island off of New York City where (mostly) European immigrants were processed. Most made it through in hours.
Island off of San Francisco where Asian immigrants were processed. Many spent days, weeks, or months waiting for background checks and interrogations.
Assimilating into "mainstream" society by learning the values and behaviors of American culture. Usually the children of immigrants were the first to undergo.
The belief that white, Protestant native-born Americans were superior to others, and that immigrants and their diverse cultural influences were undesirable.
The social process of giving up one's original culture and instead adopting "mainstream" culture.
Journalists who exposed the abuses of industrial society and stimulated the desire for reform.
A moral responsibility to help those in need inspired by religion (Protestant ministers)
Charities in low-income neighborhoods where immigrants and the urban poor could come for free services such as childcare, English classes, and social gatherings.
Muckraker and author of "The Jungle", which inspired reform in the meat industry.
Reformer who is famous for the Hull House in Chicago (first settlement house).
Ida B. Wells
Exposed the truth about the lynching of African American males in the South; helped found the NAACP.
Allowed for women's suffrage (right to vote) in the entire country.
Early 1900's muckraker who exposed the terrible conditions of the poor tenements in NYC using photojournalism and his novel "How the Other Half Lives".
Many children worked in factories and mines rather than attending schools. Reformers such as Florence Kelley and Mother Jones rallied for the end of child labor; later, President Wilson would too.
Exposed the unfair business practices of Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company.
National Woman Suffrage Association
Organization formed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others to promote the vote for women.
Problems Faced by Farmers
Falling crop prices (due to overproduction and competition), high shipping costs, profits of middlemen, high costs of manufactured products, and resulting debt. Rural isolation.
National association of farmers' social clubs created to break the rural isolation farmers experienced. Wound up leading farmers to get involved in politics.
A new national political party founded in the 1890s by Grangers - created to represent farmers and workers at the Federal level.
Grangers (organized farmers) were elected into state legislatures where they passed laws to regulate the railroads and grain elevators.
Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
The first federal law to regulate business practices. Law made it so that railroads had to give all customers the same rate (they could not favor big businesses over small farmers). Also set up an agency to oversee enforcement of the act.
The Populist Platform of 1892: proposed ideas such as a graduated income tax, eight-hour work day, restrictions on immigration, and direct election of Senators. Also proposed radical ideas such as government ownership of railroads and silver coinage.
Cross of Gold Speech
Called for bimetallism (for the U.S. currency to be backed by both gold and silver) to make it easier for farmers to repay debts. Delivered by William Jennings Bryan - helped him get nomination for Democratic presidential candidate.
Network of farmers' organizations that worked for political and economic reforms in the 1880s
Problems Faced by Workers
Long work days, low wages, dangerous conditions, periodic unemployment, lack of opportunity for advancement, child labor.
When workers walk off the job at the same time. Causes business operations to halt and forces the owner to come to terms with the striking workers to get things going again.
Organization of industrial workers to achieve better conditions on the job.
Knights of Labor
Founded by Terrence Powderly for skilled and unskilled workers. Women and minorities were welcomed. Demanded an eight-hour day and higher wages. Collapsed shortly after the Haymarket Riot.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Created by Samuel Gompers for skilled workers only (such as carpenters, shoemakers, cigar makers, etc.) - it was a collection of smaller member unions. Focused on improving conditions and raising wages. Hostile to immigration; most of these unions refused women and African Americans.
Haymarket Riot (1886)
People gathered in a rally after a failed strike. Someone threw a bomb at police and so labor leaders were arrested and put on trial. As a result, the American public began to associate labor unions with violence; Knights of Labor declined.
Homestead Strike (1892)
Carnegie and his partner, Frick, set out to break the union in his steelworks. When workers went on strike after a failed contract negotiation, and defeated the Pinkertons sent in to end the strike, the state militia was called in to protect the plants. Workers gave in, ending unionization in steel mills.
Pullman Strike (1894)
Pullman workers went on strike when he lowered wages but not prices in his company town. When Eugune Debs' American Railway Union joined in sympathy, the President of the U.S. (Cleveland) sent in federal troops to end the strike.
Government Response to the Early Labor Movement
The government acted in favor and support of big business owners and their property, not the unions and industrial workers.
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