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BIOL 3204 - Minghetti - Exam 3
Terms in this set (73)
Contraction would stop occurring
If a skeletal muscle ran out of calcium, how would contraction be affected?
a. Contraction would occur faster.
b. Contraction strength would increase.
c. Contraction would still occur but would be weaker.
d. Contraction would stop occurring.
e. Contraction would be unaffected.
Blood is made of cells and plasma. Plasma is a complex solution containing mainly water. What is the second most abundant component of the blood?
a. Gases (CO2 and O2)
b. Ions (Na, Cl, K)
pacemaker, acetylcholine (ACh)
The diagram to the right depicts an action potential in a cardiac ______ cell. If that cell is stimulated by ______, the rate of action potential production would decrease:
a. contractile, epinephrine
b. contractile, acetylcholine (ACh)
c. pacemaker, norepinephrine
d. pacemaker, acetylcholine (ACh)
e. pacemaker, epinephrine
all of the above are TRUE
Which of the following statements are TRUE regarding blood and blood vessels:
1. arteries, arterioles, and veins all contain smooth muscle
2. capillaries are made of only endothelial cells
3. oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, white blood cells, and glucose all can be found in the blood 4. platelets are cell fragments that break off from megakaryocytes
5. red blood cells contain hemoglobin but not nuclei, ribosomes, or mitochondria
a. all of the above are TRUE
b. none of the above are TRUE c. 1, 3, and 4 are TRUE
d. 1, 3, and 5 are TRUE
e. 1, 2, and 3 are TRUE
Hepatic portal vein; inferior vena cava; pulmonary artery; Aorta; Left atrium; Pulmonary vein
The diagram on the left shows the circulatory system. Find what the numbers 1 to 6 indicate.
A: Pulmonary vein; Left ventricle; Aorta; Inferior vena cava; Coronary artery; Hepatic portal vein.
B: Hepatic portal vein; Inferior vena cava; left atrium; Pulmonary vein; Pulmonary artery; Aorta.
C: Hepatic portal vein; inferior vena cava; pulmonary artery; Aorta; Left atrium; Pulmonary vein
D: Pulmonary vein; hepatic portal vein; Inferior vena cava; pulmonary artery; aorta; left atrium.
E: Aorta; hepatic portal vein; inferior vena cava; pulmonary artery; left atrium; pulmonary vein
cardiac muscle is mononucleated and striated
What is true about muscle types?
a. skeletal muscle is mononucleated and striated.
b. skeletal muscle is mononucleated and unstriated.
c. cardiac muscle is multinucleated and striated.
d. cardiac muscle is mononucleated and striated.
e. smooth muscle is mononucleated and striated.
the cell membrane
The sarcolemma in a muscle fiber serves the same function as:
a. the structural proteins
b. the connective tissue
c. the ribosome
d. the endoplasmic reticulum
e. the cell membrane
They serve structural functions in the sarcomere
What is true about the proteins titin and nebulin and their role in skeletal muscle contraction?
a. They control when contraction occurs.
b. They serve structural functions in the sarcomere.
c. They interact to cause contraction.
d. They inhibit the signals that cause contraction.
e. They promote the signals that cause contraction.
The endomysium is a layer of connective tissue in skeletal muscle. It surrounds:
a. the whole muscle
b. each fascicle
c. each fiber
d. each myofibril
e. each sarcoplasmic reticulum
to unbind myosin from actin after the power stroke
In skeletal muscle contraction, the role of ATP is:
a. to bind myosin to actin for contraction.
b. to move tropomyosin off of actin's binding sites.
c. to remove calcium from troponin.
d. to unbind myosin from actin after the power stroke.
e. to move the actin filament.
Smooth muscle is different from skeletal muscle because smooth muscle lacks:
a. actin and myosin
b. intercellular communication
d. contractile proteins
This diagram and this photograph above show the same type of muscle:
a. skeletal muscle
b. smooth muscle
c. cardiac muscle
d. slow-twitch muscle
e. single-unit muscle
cerebral cortex and basal ganglia/basal nuclei
Voluntary movements are integrated in the:
a. spinal cord and brain stem
b. brain stem and cerebellum
c. cerebral cortex and basal ganglia/basal nuclei
d. diencephalon and limbic system
e. peripheral nervous system
An example of a rhythmic movement is:
c. repetitive coughing
d. playing the piano
All of the above are TRUE.
Which of the following is TRUE about hemoglobin?
a. Hemoglobin is a protein with quaternary structure.
b. Hemoglobin molecules carry both oxygen and carbon dioxide.
c. Hemoglobin needs iron to function.
d. Hemoglobin is transported in red blood cells.
e. All of the above are TRUE.
In blood vessels, the ability to withstand high blood pressure is highest in:
blood is recirculated instead of consumed
In the 16th century, William Harvey discovered evidence that
a. the cardiovascular system transports blood and air.
b. the cardiovascular system is an open system.
c. arteries and veins are linked by capillaries.
d. blood is recirculated instead of consumed.
e. the liver manufactures blood.
transports blood away from the heart
The most accurate definition of artery is a vessel that
a. carries highly oxygenated blood.
b. contains smooth muscle in its wall.
c. transports blood away from the heart.
d. transports blood toward the heart.
e. contains internal valves.
ensure that blood flows in one direction
The purpose of having valves in the cardiovascular system is to
a. provide sounds so that heart health can be monitored.
b. ensure that blood flows in one direction.
c. prevent blood from flowing too quickly.
d. regulate blood pressure.
e. provide the force for circulation
The hepatic portal vein carries blood away from the
a. digestive tract.
The driving force for blood flow is a(n) ________ gradient.
The sac around the heart is the
b. pleural sac.
two cardiac muscle cells are connected by gap junctions
At an intercalated disc,
a. the cell membranes of two cardiac muscle fibers are completely separated by a synapse.
b. the myofibrils are loosely attached to the membrane of the disc.
c. two cardiac muscle cells are connected by gap junctions.
d. t-tubules unite the membranes of the adjoining cells.
e. All of the answers are correct.
the electrical signal that triggers heart contraction
The term myogenic indicates that the heart muscle is the source of
a. the contractile force for pumping.
b. a hormone that indirectly regulates blood volume.
c. the electrical signal that triggers heart contraction.
d. receptors that trigger blood pressure reflexes.
e. stem cells that repair damaged heart tissue.
both Ca2+ and K+
During the plateau phase of the action potentials of myocardial contractile cells, which ion(s) is/are crossing the membrane?
a. Ca2+ only
b. K+ only
c. Na+ only
d. both Ca2+ and K+
e. both Na+ and K+
The importance of the plateau phase of the action potential of myocardial cells is in
a. preventing overstretching of the cells.
b. enhancing the efficiency of oxygen use by the cells.
c. preventing tetanus.
d. preventing fibrillation.
e. regulating Ca2+ availability to the cells.
are also called pacemakers because they set the rate of the heartbeat
a. are also called pacemakers because they set the rate of the heartbeat.
b. are the same size as myocardial contractile cells.
c. have organized sarcomeres.
d. contribute to the force of contraction.
e. None of the answers are correct.
the depolarization of the atria
The P wave of an ECG corresponds to
a. the depolarization of the atria.
b. the progressive wave of ventricular depolarization.
c. the repolarization of the ventricles.
d. atrial repolarization.
e. None of the answers are correct.
A heart rate of 125 beats per minute could be correctly termed
c. an arrhythmia.
e. a normal resting heart rate.
begins just after the Q wave
a. begins during the first part of the P wave.
b. begins just after the T wave.
c. begins just after the Q wave.
d. begins during the latter part of the P wave.
e. None of the answers are correct.
The SA node fires
Which event happens at the start of a cardiac cycle?
a. Blood is ejected from the atrium.
b. The SA node fires.
c. The P wave develops.
d. V entricular systole occurs.
e. Atrial systole occurs.
The inner lining of blood vessels is called
d. basal lamina.
arteries, veins but not in capillaries
Smooth muscle is present in the walls of
a. veins only.
b. arteries only.
c. capillary only.
d. capillary and venule.
e. arteries, veins but not in capillaries
a decrease in cardiac output
All of the following would cause an increase in blood pressure EXCEPT
a. an increase in arterial resistance.
b. a decrease in arterial diameter.
c. a decrease in cardiac output.
d. sympathetic stimulation.
Compared to arteries, the velocity of flow of the blood through the capillaries is
a. at least 10 times faster.
b. at least twice as fast.
c. about the same.
d. much slower.
e. impossible to predict without more information.
The most abundant proteins in blood plasma are
b. transport proteins.
pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell
The cell that is the progenitor of all the types of blood cells is called the
a. pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell.
b. committed progenitor cell.
Red blood cell production is regulated by the hormone
b. angiotensin I.
The primary organ where erythropoietin is produced is the
d. bone marrow.
e. endothelial cells throughout the body.
The average life span of a red blood cell is
a. 1 week.
b. 1 month.
c. 4 months.
d. 6 months.
e. 1 year.
carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's cells
The function of red blood cells is to
a. remove carbon dioxide from the lungs.
b. remove nitrogenous wastes from active tissues.
c. carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's cells.
d. carry nutrients from the digestive system to the body's cells.
e. defend the body against infectious organisms.
The upper respiratory tract includes all EXCEPT which of the following?
a. nasal cavity
The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are
b. alveolar ducts.
c. pleural spaces.
e. terminal sacs.
The lungs are enclosed in ________ membranes.
allow rapid diffusion of gases through their thin membranes
Type I alveolar cells
a. allow rapid diffusion of gases through their thin membranes.
b. secrete a chemical known as surfactant.
c. are phagocytic.
d. allow rapid diffusion of gases through their thin membranes, secrete a chemical known as
surfactant, and are phagocytic.
e. None of the statements are true.
Which illegal drug (also a natural endogenous molecule) improves the capacity to carry oxygen of the blood?
Supplementation with bovine blood plasma
Synthetic cell culture media contains most of the necessary components for cells to grow in vitro. However, some components cannot be synthesized and need to be added in which way?
a. Homogenate of animal tissues
b. Supplementation of salts and sugars
c. Supplementation of plan extracts
d. Supplementation with bovine blood plasma
Which of the following tastes is not matched with the correct molecules detected?
a. sweet, carbohydrate complexes
b. salty, Na+
c. bitter, OH-
d. sour, glutamate
On average, the brains of female humans have more _________ than males' brains.
a. surface area
c. memory capacity
e. association areas
What is least likely to be disrupted by damage to the limbic system?
basal ganglia/basal nuclei
Body movement is initiated most directly by:
a. basal ganglia/basal nuclei
c. cerebral cortex
e. limbic system
The thalamus, pineal gland, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland are found in which part of the brain?
e. primitive brain
the ability to form a sensible verbal response
Damage to Broca's area disrupts:
a. the ability to understand language input in the brain.
b. the ability to form a sensible verbal response.
c. the ability to perceive written words.
d. the ability to form complex thoughts.
e. the ability to remember what someone has said.
"A" will be perceived as a higher-pitched sound than "B"
What is true about the pressure waves in "A" and "B"?
a. "A" will be perceived as a quieter sound than "B".
b. "A" will be perceived as a louder sound than "B".
c. "A" will be perceived as a more frequent repetitive sound than "B".
d. "A" will be perceived as a lower-pitched sound than "B".
e. "A" will be perceived as a higher-pitched sound than "B".
The amplitude of a soundwave determines ______and the frequency determines ______.
a. loudness, pitch
b. pitch, loudness
c. location, pitch
d. pitch, location
e. location, loudness
middle ear: equilibrium
Which part of the ear IS NOT correctly matched with its function?
a. internal ear: sound transduction
b. middle ear: equilibrium
c. middle ear: sound amplification
d. external ear: sound collection
pia mater, arachnoid membrane, dura mater
Which is the correct order of structures from nearest to the brain to the farthest from the brain?
a. dura mater, arachnoid membrane, dura mater
b. dura mater, pia mater, arachnoid membrane
c. arachnoid membrane, dura mater, pia mater
d. pia mater, arachnoid membrane, dura mater
The earliest discrete embryonic structure from which the entire nervous system eventually develops is the.
b. neural tube
c. neural plate
d. neural crest
The peripheral nervous system develops from the a. neural plate
b. neural tube
c. neural crest
The pons develops from the
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the
a. choroid plexus
b. archnoid villi
c. frontal sinuses
d. pia mater
Differences in eye color are due to differences in the amount and distribution of pigment in:
Humans have two categories of photoreceptors: ______ are monochromatic and require little light; _______ provide color vision in high-light conditions.
a. cones, bipolar cells
b. bipolar cells, rods
c. rods, bipolar cells
d. bipolar cells, cones
e. rods, cones
the presence of a complete vomeronasal organ in humans
What is not evidence that humans might respond to pheromones?
a. menstrual cycle synchrony
b. hormone level changes in response to sweat samples
c. the presence of pheromone receptors in humans
d. the presence of a complete vomeronasal organ in humans
How many types of color-detecting photoreceptors (cones) do humans have?
Photoreceptors are located in which membrane?
a dose-dependent relationship
According to this figure, what best describes the relationship between epinephrine and memory?
a. a positive relationship
b. a dose-dependent relationship
c. a negative relationship
d. the relationship varies by individual
e. no relationship
Information from pressure receptors in the skin is initially received by ______ in the cerebral cortex.
a. information areas
b. sensory areas
c. motor areas
d. association areas
e. receptive areas
c. specialized senses, somatic senses
_________ have receptors in specialized organs and ________ have receptors that are broadly distributed over the body.
a. specialized senses, visceral senses
b. visceral senses, specialized senses
c. specialized senses, somatic senses
d. somatic senses, specialized senses
e. visceral senses, somatic senses
a visceral stimulus
Information about the pH of stomach acid is an example of:
a. a visceral stimulus
b. a somatic stimulus
c. a specialized stimulus
d. an inhibited stimulus
e. a conscious stimulus
The amplitude of each action potential generated
Sensory coding is achieved by all of the following except:
a. The receptors and pathways that are activated
b. The amplitude of each action potential generated
c. The frequency of action potentials generated
d. Receptive field size and lateral inhibition
A large receptive field has ______ ability to detect a stimulus and ________ acuity.
a. high, high
b. high, low
c. low, high
d. low, low
Stimulus energy is changed into electrical signals that are sent to the central nervous system. This process is called:
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