General and Local Anesthetic Agents

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Terms in this set (58)
barbiturates, non barbiturates, anesthetic gases, volatile agentstypes of agents used for general anesthesiamethohexitalonly barbiturate still used as an anestheticsilicone equipment, P/Lcontraindications with methohexitalphenytoin, blood thinners, beta blockers, steroidsdrug to drug interactions with barbiturate anestheticsCNS effects of methohexitaldrowsiness, chills, restlessnessGI effects of methohexitalN/Vinduce rapid anesthesia and maintaintherapeutic actions of barbiturate anestheticdroperidol, etomidate, ketamine, midozolam, propofolexamples of non barbiturate anestheticstherapeutic action of non barbiturate anesthetics-potent amnesiac -act in RAS and limbic system potentiate GABA effects -used for sedation, intubation, diagnostic procedures, anesthesiaadverse effects of non barbiturate anestheticsrespiratory depression, CNS depression, skin breakdown, CV effects, hallucinations, chillsdrugs that prolong QT intervaldrug to drug interactions with non barbiturate anestheticsetomidateThis non barbiturate anesthetic should not be used in children under 10IVnon barbiturate anesthetics are given this routenitrous oxideanesthetic gases examplesinus pain, ear painadverse effects of anesthetic gasesoxygenWhat should you give anesthetic gases with since there is a risk for hypoxia?blocks reuptake of oxygenThe reason why anesthetic gases are contraindicated in people wit respiratory issuesBP medsanesthetic gases are contraindicated with ____ ______ because they raise BPmuscle relaxationanesthetic gases do NOT cause thisanalgesicanesthetic gas is a very potent ______________dental surgerynitrous oxide is most often used during _____________ ________________volatileliquids that are unstable at room temperature and release gases"flurane" (halogenated hydrocarbons)volatile liquid examplesmaintain anesthesia after inductiontherapeutic action of volatile liquidsCNS depressantsvolatile liquids drug to drug interactionsrespiratory/cardiac effects of volatile liquidsairway irritation, respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmias, renal toxicity, cough, increased airway secretions, laryngospasms, hypotension, muscle soreness, bad taste in mouthinhaledHow are volatile liquids taken?malignant hypothermiageneral anesthetic consideration to watch fortopical administrationlocal anesthetic with drops or ointmentinfiltration-local anesthetic that comes in contact with nerve endingsfield blocklocal anesthetic that is a more intensive infiltration around an entire surgical areanerve blocklocal anesthetic that causes loss of sensation in a full region (arm, leg)intravenous regional local anesthesia-used tourniquet to drain blood and medication is injected -used for specific procedurestemperature -> touch -> procioception -> skeletal muscle toneloss of sensation sequence for local anesthetic agents -recovery occurs in reverse ordersystemicallylocal anesthetic agents should NOT be absorbed this waybenzocaine, chloroprocaine, tetracaineesters - local anesthetic agentsbupivacaine, lidocaine, mepivacaine, prilocaine, ropivacaineamides - local anesthetic agentsPramoxinelocal anesthetic that does not fit into either esters or amides classplasma esterasesesters are broken down immediately by what?metabolized in liveramides pharmacokineticsprolonged anesthesiaif local anesthetic are given with succinylcholine it can cause thisepinephrineif local anesthetics are given with this it can cause systemic effects12 hoursAfter local anesthetic administration the patient should be lying flat for this long to minimize HACNS effects of local anestheticsHA, anxiety, blurred visionCV effects of local anestheticsarrhythmias, vasodilation, BP changesGI effects of local anestheticsN/Vcontraindications of local anestheticsallergy, heart block, shock decreases plasma esterase, P/Lshock after burnsdecreased plasma esterase occurs during this