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Chapter 11, The Roaring 20s Test Terms
Terms in this set (59)
Women characterized by the FLAPPER/ "new woman"- (bobbed hair, short dresses, smoked in public...) Working outside the homes, going to college, new jobs/professions; rural women didn't take part in this
"old" values vs "new" values
New: Urban Americans:
Open to social change + scientific development,
consumerism, leisure activities, modernism
Modernism - trend to emphasize science +
secular values over traditional religious values
Old: Fundamentalism was nationwide, strongest in
Rural Americans:Much less consumerism, tradition views on religion and science, less leisure
"The Jazz Singer"
"Talkies," Movie 1927, revolutionary movement because it's the first movie with sound. Starring Al Jolson.
Banned manufacture and sale of alcohol. Led to bootlegging (illegally smuggling alcohol.)
Gave women the federal right to vote. (Women's Suffrage)
Ended prohibition of alcohol. Ended 18th Amendment. Prohibition finally ended in 1933 w/ this. Forced organized crime to pursue other interests. When FDR was elected, he brought back alcohol.
2nd Ku Klux Klan
Birth of a Nation - KKK
WASP vs. Southern and Eastern Europe (closer to anarchists and communists.)
Great Increase in Power. Anti- Women's Suffrage. Anti-Bootleggers. Anti-black. Anti-immigration. Anti-semitic. Anti-Catholic.
targeted not only Afri. Amer., but also catholics, jews, immigrants, and other groups "un-american". William J. Simmons founded the new KKK (1915). To preserve a white protestant civilization. (1924) 4 mil. members. Membership began to decline with scandals and power struggles among its leaders
and immigration restrictions deprived KKK of one of its major issues.
4 Power Treaty
Treaty to respect current holdings in pacific (U.S., Japan, England, France)
5 Power Treaty
Treaty-Limit Capital ships- U.S. and Britain able to have the most. Japan did not like also outlawed use of poison gas.
9 Power Treaty
Treaty to Respect the Open Door Policy
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) advertised
for a teacher who would be willing to be arrested for teaching evolution.
African Americans and 1920s
Black Americans in this period continued to live in poverty. Sharecropping kept them in de facto slavery. Jim Crow Laws strengthened. 1915 - boll weevil wiped out the cotton crop. white landowners went bankrupt and forced blacks off their land. Blacks moved north to take advantage of booming wartime industry (= Great Migration) - Black ghettos began to form, i.e. Harlem. Within these ghettos a distinct Black culture flourished. But both blacks and whites wanted cultural interchange restricted
Agriculture during 1920s
an agricultural depression in early 1920's contributed to this urban migration. U.S. farmers lost agricultural markets in postwar Europe. At same time agricultural efficiency increased so more food produced (more food = lower prices) and fewer labourers needed. so farming was no longer as prosperous, and bankers called in their loans (farms repossessed.) So American farmers enter the Depression in advance of the rest of society.
Pilot, in 1932 Earhart is the first female to fly across the Atlantic. Really helps equality for women's rights.
mass production of this . Became very popular during this time period because it was more affordable for the average American. The model T was the most popular made by Henry Ford.
(1925) Law in Tennessee that prohibited the teaching of evolution, or "the story of the Divine creation of man as taught in the Bible" & taught instead that "man descended from a lower order of animals"
Buying on the Margin
another form of buying on credit. borrowing $ to buy stocks
Slowly pay back the broker w/ the stock at collateral
This was okay as long as the price of the stock rose the owner would continue to make money off it. By purchasing stock on margin, buyer paid as little as 10 percent of stock upfront to a broker
Buyer then paid broker for rest of stock, over period of months
Stock served as a collateral, or security, for broker's loan
As long as price of stock rose, buyer had no trouble paying off loan + making profit
was president after Harding died he was very quiet and honest. "The man who builds a factory builds a temple" He strongly believed in business. Fordney-McCumber Tariff
Smoot-Hawley Tariff (Hoover - signed it)
No help for farmers. Nickname was "Silent Cal." he believed that a temple was like a factory. Foreign Policy. "The business of America is business." Kept government spending low and encouraged private business. Believed prosperity rested on business leadership & government should interfere as little as possible. elected in 1924 because he avoided crisis and adopted policies intended to keep the nation prosperous. Republicans promised prosperity would continue.
one of the most famous actors of his time. Comedian. Most popular silent film star, played Little Tramp
Character was both hobo, dreamer, and poet but an eternal optimist in his ability to charm his audience + cont. Reinvented himself
Rise of a Consumer Culture. Case Example: Detroit's Automobile Industry. Henry Ford - Ford Motor Company. Assembly Line - allows more cars to be produced in the same amount of labor hours. Increases productivity. Makes cars more affordable. Focused on selling things to individual consumers.
Cultural Split in 1920s
the rural and urban parts of America grew farther and farther apart and the urban cities economies thrived and the farmers suffered more and more
Britain and france owed a lot of money to the u.s. and the u.s. wanted it so then britain and france turned to germany for the proclamation and germany could pay it so this plan was created and it is that the U.S. would give germany a loan and then germany would pay france and britain and they would then pay the U.S. back resulting in the U.S. making a profit of 1 billion dollars and this was because the U.S. wanted to start isolating themselves. Arranged US loans to germany. By enabling germany to make reparations payment to britain + france, dawes plan helped britain + france repay their debts to US
Was wounded in World War I, became one of the best-known authors of the era. His novels The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms criticized the glorification of war. His simple, straightforward style of writing set the literary standard of the day.
John T. Scopes was arrested and tried in court for teaching this. Theory that humans evolved from monkeys. (The Scopes "Monkey" Trial)
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Writer who coined the phrase "Jazz Age" to describe the 1920s. Fitzgerald wrote Paradise Lost and The Great Gatsby, which reflected the emptiness of New York elite society.
Rebellious girls who wear short skirts, makeup, have their hair in bobs, and smoke cigarettes. Most notable group of 1920s. Very small group of women. Radically different. Symbolize 1920s era. Women with short dresses, bright red lipstick. Also about behavior. They smoke and drink in public. Drive cars really fast. Become more sexual. Trying to rebel. Stand out. name for a woman who defied traditional feminine ideals. Smoked and Drank. Went dancing in nightclubs. Exposed more skin in dress. Wore bobby-style haircuts. Attended petting parties. A woman could now use her sexuality to empower herself.
period in which African Americans novelists, poets, and artists celebrated their culture. The Harlem Renaissance helped to redefine how Americans and the world understood African American culture. It integrated black and white cultures, and marked the beginning of a black urban society. African Americans started to question how they were being treated by whites. The Harlem Renaissance set the stage for the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 60s.
Carmaker, introduced a series of methods and ideas that revolutionized production wages, working conditions and daily life.
Influenza Outbreak 1918
10 times as many Americans died from the "Spanish Flu" from 1918 to 1919 then all of World War 1. In Ohio, over 1 million people contracted the flu. Over 8,500 died. Ohio is preparing for another possible pandemic, Ohio is overdue.
Installment Plans. Allows a consumer to get the product immediately and pay it off in "installments" over time. Which a consumer would make small down payment + then pay off rest of debt in regular monthly payments, allowed ams to own products they might otherwise have had to save up for years in order to buy
The 20s is the Jazz Age. Completely American form of music defined by improvisation and creativity, not rules. Music in Harlem. not defined by rules, known for spirit of creativity. Blended other forms of music. Savoy Ballroom. Cotton Club
Jazz Age Presidents
Harding, Coolidge, Hoover. All republicans. All believed in Laissez Faire- policy of minimum governmental interference in the economic affairs of individuals and society.
the name of the teacher who was tried and convicted for teaching evolution to his biology class in Tennessee. He was a biology teacher in Dayton, Tennessee. He was found guilty and had to pay $100 fine in the Scopes Trial.
Kellogg is American Secretary of State. World needs peace. Comity each of their nations to sign this treaty. It says to get what you want in the world is made illegal by going to war. Outlawed war with 60 nations. The goal of the this was to outlaw war.
Madison Ave. (Movie)
Came to stand for the bustling new business of advertising.
(Jamaican born immigrant) established the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Believed in Black pride. Advocated racial segregation b/c of Black superiority. He believed Blacks should return to Africa. He purchased a ship to start the Black Star line. Attracted many investments: gov't charged him with w/fraud. He was found guilty and eventually deported to Jamaica, but his organization continued to exist. Advocated for the "Back to Africa" movement. Blacks to grasp the future on their own terms.
A Mitchell Palmer
Led raids against radicals and was an attorney general
Belief that native-born white Americans were superior to newcomers and immigrants. Increase, in 1920s arises in fear of communism. (Nativism- Immigrants are bringing bad ideas, so there shouldn't be that many immigrants. Tradition and. Reform. KKK oppose immigrants not just blacks. KKK is a really popular group. All the way up to the White House, because Wilson is a huge racist.) Ku Klux Klan re-emerges as the nativist movement achieves power. Immigration is restricted. Sacco and Vanzetti Trial. Highlighted the power of nativism.
a return to simpler times before world war 1, was Harding's campaign platform
Harding gets to chose his advisors "gang" known as Ohio gang. The vast majority of these people are Harding's friends and not good people.
Banning of the production, sale, importation, and transportation of liquor of .5%. Because of the 18th amendment to the constitution. Legislate morality. Government will tell you how to act. January 1919 starts. PROHIBITION - on manufacturing and sale of alcohol
adopted in 1919 - 18th AMENDMENT
an outgrowth of the longtime temperance movement
in WWI, temperance became a patriotic theme - drunkenness caused low productivity & efficiency, and alcohol needed to treat the wounded
Volstead Act-no consumption
a difficult law to enforce... organized crime, speakeasies, bootleggers were on the rise
Prohibition finally ended in 1933 w/ the 21st Amendment
forced organized crime to pursue other interests
Proposed by the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
Thought it would cure society's problems (domestic abuse).
Thought it would increase industrial productivity, so factory owners favored it.
Prosecutor in Scopes Trial
William Jennings Bryan. 3-time presidential candidate, prosecutor representing creationism. Led the prosecution in the Scopes Trial
60,000 radios to over 10 million radios increased in homes. was a powerful instrument of mass popular culture helped produce a standardized culture, brought news into millions of homes in a way unmatched by newspaper or magazines. KDKA was radio station in Pittsburgh.
Reds and Socialists-Enemies
During the red scare people were fearful of all socialists,communists, and anarchists
fear that communists were working to destroy the American way of life. Reparations
Scopes "Monkey" Trial
evolution vs. creationism; science vs. religion; about the teacher Scopes breaking the Butler act which banned teaching evolution in school; Darrow: defense attorney; Bryan: prosecution attorney. Many believed that the Prohibition of alcohol would help reduce unemployment, domestic violence, & poverty.
Secretary of Treasury Andrew Mellon
Secretary of Treasury. He comes from money. Probably America's best Treasurer. Herbert Hoover is secretary of commerce. Mellon conducts a study of economy in America. As taxes increase, the amount of money the government makes goes down. The highest rate of taxes. Mellon finds that people that make a lot of money don't do a lot of work in America. So he lowers tax rate, more money being made. Lowers taxes for everyone. Massive economic increase. America has a huge boom in economy. Was responsible for engineering a series of tax reductions fem 1921 to 1926
Illegal bars, called speakeasies. On the front it says "Pet Store". So if you knock on the door you have to give a password, and then they'll let you in. They have alcohol and entertainment. Called speakeasies because you have to be somewhat quiet or than someone will tell the cops, and this is illegal. Other names for speakeasies is blind pig and blind tiger.
Teapot Dome Scandal
Done by Secretary of the interior Albert fall who controlled oil. Instead of giving the oil to navy, he leased the properties with oil to private airmen in return for "loans"; ruins Harding's reputation later in life.
The Lost Generation
Some writers (e.g., Hemingway and John Dos Passos) were so disillusioned by American culture that they chose to settle in Europe. In Paris they formed a group that one writer called "The Lost Generation." Group of writers who experienced the war. Live in Paris and say that America is wrong and lost but they don't tell America what to fix. Young writers disillusioned by the materialism, decadence, and conformity dominating 1920s America.
If you're arrested for production, sale, importation, or transportation you're violating the Volstead Act. Hard to enforce the act, because many cops like to go out and drink too. People started hiding making liquor. No consumption of alcohol. A difficult law to enforce... organized crime, speakeasies, bootleggers were on the rise.
Wall Street (Movie)
Came to represent expanding economic opportunities.
Wall Street Bombing
1920. Horse drawn carriage explodes in front of JP Morgan building. 100 pounds of TNT and 500 pounds of cast-iron pellets. Meant to kill and Maim as many as possible. 38 died
Over 400 injured. This will fuel Palmer even more. Over 10,000 people will be arrested 4,000 in one night alone.
"Returning to Normalcy." Elected 1920. Legacy of Scandals. "Teapot Dome." Died in office. For him in office, it meant an end to progressive experimentation, an end to high taxes on the wealthy, AND an end to the economic controls imposed. Restoring economic growth AND prosperity, by getting the government out of the economy. HARDING APPOINTED: supreme court justice, Charles Evans Hughes as Secretary of state. Appointed Herbert Hoover (Food Administration) as Secretary of Commerce. Andrew Mellon as Secretary of Treasure.
Women and 1920s
1920's also brought about great changes for women. 1920 - 19th Amendment gave them the federal vote. After 1920, social circumstances changed too as more women worked outside the home. And more women went to college and clamoured to join the professions. Women didn't want to sacrifice wartime gains - amounted to a social revolt. Characterized by the FLAPPER/ "new woman"- (bobbed hair, short dresses, smoked in public...)
Farmers After WW1
very poor, struggling, in debt due to overproduction of crops.
Stock Market Crash
also known as "Black Tuesday". Too much money was being poured into stock speculation. It crashed in 1929 at the end of October.
Causes of the Great Depression
Stock Market Crash, WW1 ending, unemployment rate went up, easy credit. illusion of prosperity, farmers debt (over production of crops), maldistribution of wealth, Ban Baking system
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