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27 terms

8th science Plate Tectonics

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crust
the thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantle
mantle
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core.
core
the central part of the Earth below the mantle
lithosphere
the solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
asthenosphere
The solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly
mesosphere
The strong lower part of the Mantle between the Asthenosphere and the outer core
Moho
lower boundary of the crust
system
set of components or parts that function together to act as a whole.
rift
crack in the center of a ridge
open system
a system that can exchange both matter and energy with its surroundings
closed system
A system that allows the exchange of energy, but not matter, between the system and its surroundings.
continental drift
the hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations
mid-ocean ridge
underwater mountain range formed when two plates pull apart
sea-floor spreading
The process that creates new sea floor as plates move away from each other at the mid-ocean ridges
paleomagnetism
The study of the alignment of magnetic minerals in rock,that relates to the reversal of Earth's magnetic poles; also the magnetic properties that rock gets during formation
normal polarity
all rocks with a magnetic field point north
reversed polarity
all rocks with magnetic fields that point south
geomagnetic reversal time line
shows the pattern of normal and reversed polarity in rocks
plate tectonics
the theory that explains how large pieces of the lithosphere, called plates, move and change shape
divergent boundary
the boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other
convergent boundary
the boundary between two colliding tectonic plates
transform boundary
the boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally
fracture zone
short segments of a mid-ocean ridge that are connected by transform boundaries.
convection cell
an area created when cooler, denser material sinks and the warmer material rises to the surface
ridge push
the process in which new material at a ridge or rift pushes older material aside, moving the tectonic plates away from the ridge
slab pull
occurs when enough of plate subducts at a convergent boundary that gravity can pull the rest of the plate under
hot spots
areas of volcanic activities that result from plumes of hot solid material that have risen from deep inside earths mantle