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the solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
The solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly
A system that allows the exchange of energy, but not matter, between the system and its surroundings.
the hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations
The process that creates new sea floor as plates move away from each other at the mid-ocean ridges
The study of the alignment of magnetic minerals in rock,that relates to the reversal of Earth's magnetic poles; also the magnetic properties that rock gets during formation
the theory that explains how large pieces of the lithosphere, called plates, move and change shape
the boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally
an area created when cooler, denser material sinks and the warmer material rises to the surface
the process in which new material at a ridge or rift pushes older material aside, moving the tectonic plates away from the ridge
occurs when enough of plate subducts at a convergent boundary that gravity can pull the rest of the plate under
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