Strayer, Ways of the World for the AP® Course, 4e, Chapter 11
Terms in this set (13)
Based on an alternative kind of food-producing economy focused on the raising of livestock, pastoral societies emerged in the Afro-Eurasian world where settled agriculture was difficult or impossible. Pastoral peoples often led their animals to seasonal grazing grounds rather than settling permanently in a single location.
Great ruler of the Xiongnu Empire (r. 210-174
b.c.e.) who exacted tribute from other Central Asian pastoral peoples as well as China itself, forcing Han dynasty emperor Wen to acknowledge the Xiongnu Empire as an equal.
An imperial creation of nomadic steppe peoples who inhabited lands north of China. In the third and second centuries b.c.e., this empire stretched from Manchuria to Central Asia, establishing a model for later Turkic and Mongol empires.
Turkic speakers from Central Asia, originally nomads, who spread westward, creating a series of nomadic empires between 552 and 965 c.e. Having converted to Islam between the tenth and fourteenth centuries, Turkic peoples carried that faith into new lands, most notably the Christian Byzantine Empire, and became a politically powerful presence in the Islamic world.
Seljuk Turkic Empire
An empire of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, centered in Persia and present-day Iraq. Seljuk rulers adopted the Muslim title of sultan (ruler) as part of their conversion to Islam.
Emerging out of an Islamic reform movement among the Sanhaja Berber pastoralists in the eleventh century, the Almoravid Empire incorporated a large part of northwestern Africa and southern Spain. The empire collapsed by the mid-twelfth century.
Temujin (Chinggis Khan)
Birth name of the Mongol leader better known as Chinggis Khan (1162-1227), or "universal ruler," a name he acquired after unifying the Mongols. (pron. TEM-oo-chin)
Mongol world war
Term used to describe half a century of military campaigns, massive killing, and empire building pursued by Chinggis Khan and his successors in Eurasia after 1209.
Grandson of Chinggis Khan who ruled China from 1271 to 1294. (pron. koo-buh-l'eye kahn)
Yuan dynasty (China)
Mongol dynasty initiated by Khubilai Khan that ruled China from 1271 to 1368.
Grandson of Chinggis Khan who became the first il-khan (subordinate khan) of Persia. (pron. HE-luh-gee)
Khanate of the Golden Horde
The Russian name for the incorporation of Russia into the Mongol Empire in the mid-thirteenth century; known to Mongols as the Kipchak Khanate.
Black Death (plague)
A massive pandemic that swept through Eurasia in the early fourteenth century, spreading along the trade routes within and beyond the Mongol Empire and reaching the Middle East and Western Europe by 1347. Associated with a massive loss of life.
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