Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Chem Ch. 9 - Electrons in Atoms & the Periodic Table
Terms in this set (13)
What is the speed of light?
3.0 x 10⁸ m/s (meters/second)
What are all the different types of waves, in order from least to greatest frequency?
Radio, Microwave, Infrared, Ultraviolet, X-Ray, Gamma Ray
1. What is frequency and wavelength?
2. Which relationships between frequency, wavelength, and energy are directly proportional, and which are inversely proportional?
1. WAVELENGTH: Distance between two crests, or two troughs of a wave.
FREQUENCY: The number of wave cycles or crests that pass through a given point per unit of time.
2. Imagine a picture of a radio wave above a gamma wave. Move your finger across the pictures for one second - did you pass through more crests/troughs in the radio or the gamma? The gamma. THEREFORE, as wavelength increases, frequency decreases. This means that both "frequency & wavelength" and "wavelength & energy" are inversely proportional, while "energy & frequency" are directly proportional (the higher the frequency, the more energy a wave carries).
INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL: "frequency & wavelength" | "wavelength & energy"
DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL: "energy & frequency"
What is the wavelength that 1. Red Light and 2. Purple Light have?
Red: 750 nm ---> Purple: 400 nm
What are the trends for:
1. Atomic Radius
2. Ionization Energy
3. Metallic Character
1. ATOMIC RADIUS: Increases down and to the left. Up/down is more significant than left/right.
------>(It gets smaller to the right because these atoms have more protons, and as the number of protons increases, the attraction between the nucleus and valence electrons increases, and so the valence electrons pull closer to the nucleus, decreasing the radius of the atom as a whole.)
2. IONIZATION ENERGY: The amount required decreases down and to the left. Left/right is more significant than up/down.
-------> (This is because the larger the radius of an element is, the farther away from the nucleus the electrons. The nucleus has less of a "hold" on these electrons; therefore, they are easier to pull off.
3. METALLIC CHARACTER: Increases down and to the left. I *BELIEVE* that up/down is more significant than right/left.
--------> Metallic character is "how much like a metal (specifically, the tendency to lose electrons in reactions)" a particular element is.
4. ELECTRONEGATIVITY: Up and to the right. Up/down and right/left are about equal, but right/left is slightly more important in that far left is VERY non-negative. I has higher e-negativity than H!
How many valence electrons does each column of elements have?
The amount of valence electrons are shown in the first row above the actual table. The row that says 1A, 2AB, 1B, 8A, etc.
Otherwise, look at the periodic table in terms of s, p, d, and f blocks. The first element in the s block will have one s-level valence e⁻. The third element in the p block will have three p-level valence e⁻'s, however you must realize that when there's a p-level, there's also a full s-level with two electrons. So the total amount of valence electrons would be 5: 2 s, and 3 p's.
1. What is the order of energy levels, up to 6s?
2. In what order must you write out an electron configuration?
3. When does the trend begin, and what is this trend?
4. What comes before the trend?
1. 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s
2. You must write out all electron configurations in this order ^
3. THE TREND of 1p, 2s, 1d begins at 3p: 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d . The trend ends at 6s, after which the f orbital begins (4f).
4. BEFORE THE TREND comes 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s
If you have the electron configurations of a neutral ion and its positive ion, what will be different? In other words, exactly which electrons are lost during ion formation?
How do you easily determine the last part of the electron configuration of any element by looking at the periodic table?
What is the electron configuration of Fe?
The table is divided into s-block (including H and He), p-block, d-block, and f-block. The last energy level will be determined by the attached picture. To determine how many electrons are in this last level, simply count within the block.
For example, Fe is the 6th member of d-block, period 4, so the final part of the configuration will be 3d⁶ (the energy level is 3 because for d-block, the energy level is n-1). Now, be mindful that 4s² comes before 3d⁶, so Fe's full configuration will be [Ar]4s²3d⁶.
How do you determine how many valence electrons are in a given element, given its electron configuration?
The valence electrons are ALL of the s and p electrons beyond the noble gas core. For example, the electron configuration of Te is [Kr]5s²4d¹⁰5p⁴. There are six valence electrons.
!!!NOTE: The highest of Te's valence electrons are the four p's. This means that if Te were to form a positive ion, electrons would be taken away from 5p first, and then 5s if necessary. If Te were to form a negative ion, the electrons would be added to 5p and then 6s.
What does all of this mean: 4p⁵
This is referring to the fourth-level p sublevel, which is filled with five electrons.
What must you remember when filling in electron configuration diagrams?
In p, d, and f sublevels, each individual orbital must receive an electron before one can receive two.
Think of it this way: In an empty house, people will start filling in individual bedrooms. It's only when there are more people than there are bedrooms that people start sharing rooms.
How many electrons are in one orbital?
b. depends on the type of orbital
There can be a maximum of two in each individual orbital. P levels can have 3 orbitals for a total of 6 electrons per p level. But, each individual orbital only has 2.
Sets found in the same folder
Common Elements and Their Symbols
Polyatomic Ion formulas
Other sets by this creator
Ch 7 - Alkyne Reactions
❂ French Pronunciation
Other Quizlet sets
Science 1069 Self Test
Other Health Insurance Concepts