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Chapter 13 - European Middle Ages (500-1200)

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Middle Ages
The gradual decline of the Roman Empire ushered in this medieval period of European history. It spanned from 500-1500 A.D.
Results of Western European Invasions
Disruption of trade, downfall of cities, population shifts, decline of learning (Germanic invaders could not read or write), and loss of common language.
monasteries
religious communities built by the Church from 400-500s.
monks
Christian men who gave up their private possessions and devoted their lives to serving God.
nuns
Christian women who devoted their lives to serving God and also lived in convents.
Gregory the Great
He became pope in 590 and he broadened the authority of the papacy from a spiritual kingdom to a political kingdom.
Carolingian Dynasty
Family that would rule the Franks from 751-987 that began with Pepin the Short (son of Charles Martel who was a Christian hero for defeating the Muslims in 732).
Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
Ruled the Frankish Kingdom in 768, extended its rule and was given the title of Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in 800.
Feudalism
System of governing and landholding based on rights, obligations control of land and military protection.
Lord
Landowner within feudalism. He granted land (fief) to vassals (wealthy landowners - nobles and bishops).
Knights
Mounted horsemen who pledged to defend lords' lands in exchange for land (fiefs).
Serfs
Peasants who worked on the land. They were not slaves, but anything they produced belonged to the lord.
Manor
Lord's estate.
Tithe
A church tax. It represented 1/10th of a peasant family's income.
Chivalry
A code that reflected a complex set of ideals that demanded a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters: earthly feudal lord, heavenly Lord, and his chosen lady.
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