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Investigations are conducted to

Identify potential problems and to create solutions to those problems before they actually occur


An explanation formulated to answer the questions being investigated; A statement that can be tested

Steps of Forming a Hypothesis

1. Identify the problem-Observe and determine the problem to be investigated

2. Ask questions-Ask questions and attempt to formulate a solution to the problem

3. Formulate a Hypothesis-Formulate explanations to answer the questions. This involves making predictions that follow from the initial statement of the problem. Is not subject to interpretation.

If no reasonable test can be designed..

it becomes necessary to reformulate the hypothesis. It is of little value to quantitatively pursue the validity of a statement without any ability to measure an outcome.

Scientific Method

1. Problem identification
2. Question asking
3. Hypothesis development
4. Data collection and experimentation
5. Analysis
6. Conclusion

Data Collection

Collect data throughout the scientific process to test the hypotheses or predictions in a controlled environment.

4 Main Steps of Data Collection

1. Observation
2. Measurement
3. Samples
4. Organization


Scientists use the 5 senses to learn as much as possible during data collection.
Direct-such as listening to a bird call
Indirect-such as observing qualities of planets


Allows for collection of quantitative data


Data typically cannot be collected from every member of a population. Collect information from a representative sample of the population. Obtain data from a subset of the population that looks like the population, but is small and more manageable.


Data should be organized. May involve placing informatin in tables and/or charts.


Involves comparing a control group and an experimental group. Both groups are compared to understand what effect the variable has on the experimental group.


Must analyze data collected during experimentation. The researchers must determine if the data is reliable (consistent with past results) and whether or not it supports the hypothesis.


Scientists produce models to represent the explanations supported by the data.


A way of drawing conclusions without direct observatioin


Broad statement of what is thought to be true; A theory that is thought to be true may be proven incorrect when technology enables better data collection

Mathematics in Science Research

Data is recorded in numerical form.
Data are then related to one another through the relationships established by graphs and empirical formulas.
No modern conveniences could exist without math because the creation of all technology is ultimately mathematical.

If mathematics was not used..

the best scientific descriptions would be purely qualitative in nature.

Quantitative Investigations

Uses numerical information (or data)

Data management

through the use of software programs improves the efficiency of an investigation

Scientific explanations (or models)

Direct results of the evidence that currently supports them

As improvements are made, collection of new data often leads to more refined alternative explanations

Measuring and observational devices have been developed so that smaller increments of time and length have become accessible

Deductive reasoning

A method whereby conclusions follow from general principles; Leads to a specific conclusion; General to Specific

Inductive reasoning

A method of arriving at general principles from specific facts; Specific to General


Study of the structure of organs and body systems


Study of the function of the organs and body systems


Smallest parts of elements that still retain all the original properties of the element


Atoms combine to form this


Specific molecules combine to form this
is the basic unit of all life


Cells combine in terms of function and type to form this

Organ Level

Two or more tissue types work together to perform a specific function; Possible to perform extremely complex functions

Organ System

When organs work together to perform a task

How many organ systems are there in the human body?

11 organ systems


Result of all organ systems working together within the body

Hierarchy of the Structure of the Human Body

Bottom to Top:
Organ Systems

4 Tissue Types

Epithelial, Connective, Muscular, and Nervous

Epithelial Tissue Functions

It can provide covering or produce secretions

Epithelial Tissue

Exists in sheets and does NOT have its own blood supply.

Simple Epithelium

One layer of cells. Is found in body structures where absorption, secretion, and filtration occur.

Stratified Epithelium

Has more than one layer of cells. It serves as protection

Shapes of Epithelial Cells

Squamous, Cuboidal, Columnar

Connective Tissue

Found throughout the body; It serves to connect different structures of the body; Has its own blood supply

Types of Connective Tissue

Bone, Cartilage, Adipose (Fat), and Blood Vessel, Ligaments

Muscle Tissue

Produces movement.

Three Types of Muscle Tissue

Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth

Skeletal Muscle

Supports voluntary movement since it is connected to bones in the skeletal system

Voluntary Movements

Consciously controlled by the brain

Smooth Muscle

Involuntary control; Found in the walls of hollow organs, such as intestines, blood vessels, bladder, and uterus

Involutary Movements

Cannot be consciously controlled

Cardiac Muscle

Found only in the heart

Nervous Tissue

Provides structure for the brain, spinal cord, and nerves


Made up of specialized cells called neurons


Send electrical impulses throughout the body

Support Cells

Help protect nervous tissue
ex. Myelin

Circulatory System

also called the Cardiovascular System
Consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood
Supports the circulation and distribution of various substances throughout the body
Oxygen, hormones, and nutrients from food are some of these substances

Digestive System

Consists of all the organs from the mouth to the anus involved in ingestion and breakdown of food
Organs include the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum, and anus
Makes enzymes that break down food
Any food that is not digested is expelled through the anus
Absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine

Small Intestine

Absorption of nutrients
Consists of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum


Removes water from the waste


Produces bile that helps break down fats


Delivers enzymes to the small intestine that aid in digestion

Urinary System

Also called the excretory system
Helps maintain the water and electrolyte balance, regulates the acid-base balance of the blood, and removes all nitrogen-containing wastes from the body
Helps regulate blood volume and pressure by adjusting urine volume
Activates vitamin D

Nervous System

Controls the blood pressure, heart rate, and distribution of blood
Consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Serves as body's control system

Integumentary System

Allows heat to escape by dilating blood vessels

Blood Cells are formed in the

Marrow of the bones in the skeletal system

Endocrine System

Glands secrete hormones that regulate growth and the release of calcium

Integumentary System

Consists of the skin, mucous membranes, hair, and nails
Also serves as a barrier to pathogens

Lymphatic System

Consists of lymph nodes, lymph vessels that carry lymph, the spleen, the thymus, and tonsils
Supports the immune system
Transports sex hormones

Muscular System

Consists of skeletal muscles, tendons that connect muscles to bones, and ligaments that attach bones together to form joints
Cardiac and Smooth muscles are not included here

Reproductive System

Main purpose is to produce offspring
Consists of the testes, penis, ovaries, vagina, and breasts

Respiratory System

Keep's the body's cells supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide as it is released from cells
Consists of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Provides for air exchange and supplies tissues with oxygenated blood


House tiny air sacs called alveoli


Through these walls, the oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of the lungs via small blood vessels called arterioles

Skeletal System

Provides support and protection for the body and its organs
Creates movement
Consists of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints
Storage for minerals such as calcium and phosphorus

Anatomical Position

Body facing forward, feet are parallel to each other, arms are at he sides with the palms facing forward


Toward the upper end of the body or body structure


Toward the lower end of the body or body structure


Toward the front of the body or body structure


Toward the back of the body or body structure


Toward the middle of the body or body structure


Toward the outer sides of the body or body structure


Between medial and lateral


Close to the origin of the body part or point of attachment


Away from the origin of the body part or point of attachment


Toward or at the body surface


Away from or below the body surface

Sagittal Section

Cut made along a longitudinal plane dividing the body into right and left parts

Midsagittal Section

Sagittal section made down the median of the body

Transverse Section

Cut made along a horizontal plane to divide the body into upper and lower regions

Frontal Section

Cut made along a longitudinal plane that divides the body into front and back regions

Dorsal Body Cavity

Contains the cranial cavity and spinal column

Ventral Body Cavity

Contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen


Divides the ventral cavity into the thoracic cavity

Abdominal and Pelvic Cavities

Below the diaphragm


Receive, interpret, and respond to internal and external stimuli via the nervous system


Transport oxygen and other nutrients to tissues via the cardiovascular system


Remove metabolic wastes from the body via the renal system


Allow voluntary and involuntary movement of body via the musculoskeletal and neurological systems


Take in and break down nutrients to be used for metabolism via the digestive system


Take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide via the respiratory system


Hormonal control of body functions via the endocrine system


Production of offspring via the reproductive system


When all the needs of the body are met and all of the organ systems are working properly
Stable state

Where can Connective tissue be found in the human body?


Where can Epithelial tissue be found in the human body?


Where can Muscle tissue be found in the human body?


Where can Nervous tissue be found in the human body?


This system works as the transportation system for substances such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the body

Circulatory System

This system breaks down food so that the nutrients can be easily passed into the blood and circulated throughout the body

Digestive System

This system controls body functions

Endocrine System

This system protects internal tissues from injury, waterproofs the body, and helps regulate body temperature, This system also serves as a barrier to foreign substances

Integumentary System

This system helps cleanse the blood and houses the white blood cells that are involved in protecting the body from environmental pathogens

Lymphatic System

This system produces movement through contraction

Muscular System

This system acts as the body's control system and is necessary to protect the body from changes in the internal and external environment

Nervous System

This system produces offspring

Reproductive System

This system keeps all the cells in the body supplied with oxygen and removes the carbon dioxide

Respiratory System

This system provides support and protection for the body, supplies a framework used to create movement, and serves as storage for minerals, such as calcium

Skeletal System

This system helps maintain the water and electrolyte balance within the body, regulates the acid-base balance in the blood, and removes all nitrogen-containing wastes from the body

Urinary System


Organ that contracts and pumps blood throughout the body


Blood vessels that transport blood away from the heart to the capillaries


Blood vessels that transport blood from the capillaries back to the heart


Tiny blood vessels that transport blood from arteries to veins within the body
Serve as the location for the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, fluid, and nutrients within the body

Four Chambers in the Heart

Right and left atriums and the right and left ventricles

Four Valves in the Heart

Prevent flow of blood back into the heart's chambers after a contraction

Tricuspid and Pulmonary Valves

On the right side of the heart

Mitral and Aortic Valves

On the left side of the heart

Flow of Blood through the Heart

Deoxygenated blood enters into the heart through the superior and inferior vena cava
Blood travels into the right atrium and flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle
Blood is pushed through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery and lungs when the right ventrical contracts and picks up oxygen
Oxygenated blood is then carried back to the heart by the pulmonary veins into the left atrium through the mitral valve and into the left ventricle
Contraction of the left ventricle forces the blood through the aortic valve, through the aorta, and out to the entire body

Q: If the mitral valve is damaged, which problem may occur?

A: Backflow of blood into the left atrium
The mitral valve is on the left side of the heart, separating the ventricle and atrium

True or False: Blood that passes through the tricuspid valve enters the left ventricle

False. Blood that passes through the tricuspid valve enters the right ventricle

True or False: Blood that passes through the mitral valve enters the pulmonary artery

False. Blood that passes through the mitral valve enters the left ventricle

True or False: After contraction of the left ventricle, blood enters the aorta


True or False: After contraction of the right ventricle, blood enters the pulmonary artery


True or False: After contraction of the right atrium, blood enters the right ventricle


True or False: The pulmonary valve ensures that blood stays in the aorta

False. The pulmonary valve ensures that blood stays in the pulmonary artery


Primary function is breathing in oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide


Act of taking in oxygenated air
When abdominal muscle contracts, pulls air into the lungs
Chest cavity enlarges, creating negative pressure in the chest cavity and pulls air into the lungs


Carbon dioxide is forced out of the body
When the diaphragm relaxes

The respiratory system supplies the body with _____ and removes _____

Oxygen, Carbon dioxide

It is through the walls of the _____ that oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of the capillaries in the lungs


Cranial Nervous System

Brain and Spinal Cord

Peripheral Nervous System

Cranial and spinal nerves that extend beyond the CNS
Divided into the automatic nervous system and the sensory-somatic nervous system

Autonomic Nervous System

Controls automatic body functions, like heartbeat and digestion
Includes both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves

Sympathetic Nerves

Are active when a person is excited or scared

Parasympathetic Nerves

Are active when a person is eating or at rest

Sensory-Somatic Nervous System

Consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves and associated ganglia
Controls voluntary actions like talking and walkin


Collections of nerve cell bodies


Receive stimuli from the internal and external environment and bring those stimuli to the neurons for interpretation


Specialized cells that make the nervous system and transmit messages


Connects one neuron with another neuron over a fluid filled gap called a synaps

Three Main Functions of the Nervous System

Provide sensory, motor and integrative functions within the body

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