POLS1009 Short Answer

Terms in this set (14)

Identify
- Define
A. HOW STRUCTURE OF OUR SOCIETY INFLUENCES POWER AND KNOWLEDGE
B. Critical approaches are interested relationship between language, culture, power and how this impacts people
C. Concerned with the totality of the social world
D. Interdisciplinary and Experimental
E. Deeply sceptical of tradition, embedded theories stop our emancipation.
F. Interested relationship between culture, power and the emancipated individual (origins in Marxism, class consciousness = revolution, industrialisation = alienation of society)
G. BUT, did not dismiss economic determinism, stage theory of history, didn't believe socialism was inevitable
H. How do powerful people try to shape our lives and exert their influence over us?
I. Explicit political goals, no attempt of neutrality

J. STRUCTURALISM = pioneered in France by Ferdinand de Saussure, language/linguistics influences your power/knowledge (language intervenes between a person and the world, truth isn't necessarily observable, it's reliant on what's possible in language)
K. Meanings are both produced and reproduced, norms are culturally produced, ideology secures the regime by consent
L. POST-STRUCTURALISM = Derrida: Developed a form of semiotic analysis known as 'deconstruction,' texts don't have an inherent meaning, oLanguage is our window onto the world (we have different languages and cultures, Words don't translate neatly, We actually all experience our own subjective view of the world, created by our society and our socialisation = So language is relative)

- Example
A. Anything in the 19th and 20th century
B. Social Darwinism, scientific theory
C. Germany post WWI = Spartacus Revolution and new avant garde thinking (Weimar Golden Period)
D. Rise of Hitler and Stalin and how they took over their countries, changes people's identity, created police states, rewrote history and education systems etc.

- Contributors
A. Frankfurt School (Sociologists/ Social theorists, Western Marxists)
B. Interesting in culture and power: how bureaucratic governance crushed the individual's capacity for self-liberation, how culture perpetuates false consciousnesses
C. Many members of the Frankfurt school were active in leftist politics, so the relationship between theory and practice mattered

Significance
- Why is this important in the field of Political Science? Why do we study this in research?
D. That is, ruling ideology and culture dominate the way people think, stopping them from being free.
E. ADV = critiques natural sciences approach to people (no standard way of experiencing the world, no objectivity), perpetuating power structures = subjectivity), questions don't have to be falsifiable, observations can be misleading, recognition and reflection prioritised, generalisations are dangerous!
F. DIS = fragmented thinking, failure to engage in genuine ethical or political arguments, need for grounding claims, need to formulate systematic arguments, need for real political terms, research should be verifiable and be held to methodological standards, obscure!
G. Major objection is that it doesn't contribute to the cumulative project of political science because it is so different! It is too radically skeptical.
Identify
- Define
A. A part of comparative research
B. Most different systems = outcome (DV) is the same for all observations. Research tries to look for cases where just all independent variables are different.
C. Strategy is to choose units of research which are as different as possible with regard to extraneous variables. The basic logic is that differences cannot explain similarities.
D. Focus on variables below the system level.
E. The 'most different systems design' centres on eliminating irrelevant system factors
F. Strategy is looking at individual level behaviour and attempting to explain relationships among variables in samples of individuals.

- Example
G. Theda Skocpol argued for a most different systems design in her historical analysis of revolutions in France, Russia and China.
H. These systems all generated major revolutions, albeit arising within apparently very different political economic and social systems.
I. The question for Skocpol then became: What was sufficiently common among those systems to produce political events that were essentially similar?
J. FALSIFICATION with Karl Popper and the Philosophy of Science

- Contributors
K. Przeworski and Teune's (1970) most different systems design (they proposed how to select cases for comparative analysis)
L. "Falsification" is the major goal of this approach

Significance
- Why is this important in the field of Political Science?/Why do we study this in research?
M. The most different systems design is attempting to determine how robust any relationship among these variables may be.
N. ADV = Works for theory building, advantages of small-N, can act as explanatory or confirmatory, works to eliminate potential causes
O. DIS = doesn't confirm theories, possible for no conclusion to be met, issues with selection bias, hard to determine causality, issues with using small-N, cannot generalise, compliment of MSSD only
Identify
- Define
A. Qualitative leverage
B. Using multiple sources of evidence (either all quantitative, all qualitative, or a mix of both.
C. Mixed methods research is, generally speaking, an approach to knowledge (theory and practice) that attempts to consider multiple viewpoints, perspectives, positions, and standpoints (always including the standpoints of qualitative and quantitative research).
- Example/Contributors
A. Aristotle and Socrates
B. In the social science methodological literature, Campbell and Fiske's (1959) article sometimes is viewed as formalising the practice of using multiple research methods. In this 1959 article, Campbell and Fiske introduced the idea of triangulation, referring to "multiple operationalism," in which more than one method is used as part of a validation process that ensures that the explained variance is the result of the underlying phenomenon or trait and not of the method (e.g., quantitative or qualitative). It was argued that the convergence of findings stemming from two or more methods "enhances our beliefs that the results are valid and not a methodological artefact."

Significance
- Why is this important in the field of Political Science?/Why do we study this in research?
C. The main point is to gain good understanding from different perspectives of an investigated phenomenon
D. Increase the level of knowledge about something and to strengthen the researcher's standpoint from various aspects. Especially when setting and following the methodological framework of a research.
E. Qualitative or mixed methods researchers who believe it is important to include quantitative data and approaches into their otherwise qualitative research projects.
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