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Research Methods in Psychology Chapter 5 PowerPoint
Terms in this set (17)
1. Objective measurements of the phenomenon under consideration.
2. The ability to verify or confirm the measurements made by other individuals.
3. Self-correction of errors and faulty reasoning.
4. Exercising control to rule out the influence of unwanted factors.
Good researcher strives to be as objective as possible.
Psychologists select research participants in such a manner as to avoid biasing factors (such as age or sex).
Researchers frequently make their measurements with instruments in order to be as objective as possible. We describe such measurements as being
because they are based on objectively quantifiable observations.
Confirmation of Findings
Because the procedures and measurements are objective, we should be able to repeat them and confirm the original results. Confirmation of findings is important for establishing the validity of research.
Psychologists use the term
to refer to a research study that is conducted in exactly the same manner as a previous study. A replication with extension generates new information at the same time it confirms previous findings.
Errors and faulty reasoning that become apparent should lead to a change in the conclusions we reach.
If experimental evidence fails to support the predicted relations between our independent and dependent variables, we change our view about how nature operates.
Direct manipulation of factors of major interest.
is an implementation of control by manipulating the factor(s) that is the central focus of research.
Control of unwanted factors.
Potentially influential and undesirable factors (other than the factor of major interest) are not allowed to change.
An attempt to determine the cause-and-effect relations that exist in nature.
Researchers are interested in determining those factors that result in or cause predictable events.
In its most basic form the psychological experiment consists of three related factors: (1) the
, (2) the
Independent Variable (IV)
The factor that is the major focus of the research and that the researcher directly manipulates.
Manipulation of the IV corresponds to one use of the term control.
The IV is:
Independent: Can be directly manipulated by the investigator.
Variable: Is able to assume two or more values (levels).
The causal part of the relation we seek to establish.
Dependent Variable (DV)
Consists of the recorded information or results of the experiment.
Is the effect half of the cause-and-effect relation we are examining.
Changes in DV scores will depend on the manipulation of the IV.
When an extraneous variable is present, we have no way of knowing whether the extraneous variable or the IV caused the effect we observe.
Attention to extraneous variables represents another use of the term control.
Establishing Cause-and-Effect Relations
Only when we manipulate an independent variable and control potential extraneous variables are we able to infer a cause-and-effect relation.
Formulating the Research Hypothesis
A research hypothesis is simply a formal statement of your research question, taking into account what you learned from searching the literature.
our prediction about the relation that exists between the independent variable that we are going to manipulate and the dependent variable that we will record.
General Implication Form
You must be able to state (or restate) the research hypothesis in general implication ("if...then") form.
The "if" portion of such statements refers to the independent variable manipulation(s) that we are going to make, whereas the "then" portion of the statement refers to the dependent variable changes we expect to observe.
Principle of falsifiability
When an experimental hypothesis is stated in general implication form, it is possible that a result is true (supported by the results of the study) or false (not supported by the results of the study).
Types of Reasoning
: Involves reasoning from specific cases to general principles. Inductive logic is the process that is involved in the construction of theories.
: Involves reasoning from general principles to specific conclusions or predictions.
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