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Earth's outermost layer, which varies in thickness from about 5km to 60km and is separated from the mantle by the Moho Discontinuity
very dense, solid center od the Earth that is made of mostly iron with smaller amounts of oxygen, silicon, sulfur, or nickel
largest layer inside Earth, lying directly above the outer core and that is made mostly of silicon, oxygen, magnesium, and iron
break in rock due to tension forces, where rock above the fault surface moves downward in relation to rock below the fault surface
waves that travel outward from an Earthquake's focus and cause particles in rocks to move back and forth in the same direction the wave is moving
break in rock due to compression forces, where rocks above the fault surface move upward and over the rocks below the fault surface
waves that travel outward from an earthquke's focus and move through Earth by causing particles in rocks to vibrate at right angles to the direction of the wave
break in rock due to shearing forces, where rocks on either side of the fault suface move past each other with little upward or downward movement
hypothesis proposed by Alfred Wegener that the states that continents have moved slowly to their current locations on Earth
cycle of heating, rising, cooling, and sinking that is thought to be the force behind plate tectioncs
rigid, outermost layer of Earth that is about 100km thick, and is composed of the crust and part of the upper mantle
single large landmass made up of all the continents connected together that broke apart 200 million years ago
theory that Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections that move around on a plastic-like layer of the mantle
theory that magma from below Earth's crust is forced upward toward the surface at a mid-ocean ridge, flows from the cracks as the seafloor spreads apart and bcomes solid as it cools, forming new seafloor
waves of energy that reach Earth's surface during an earthquake, travel outward from the epicenter, and move rock particles up and down, and side to side
powerful seismic sea wave that can travel thousands of kilometers in all directions and that begins over an earthquake focus
largest intrusive igneous rock bodies that form when magma cools underground before reaching Earth's surface
a volacano formed by alternating layers of tephra and lava and that is found mostly where Earth's plates come together
intrusive igneous rock body formed when magma is squeezed into a vertical crack that cuts across rock layers and hardens
location in the mantle that is hotter than any other areas and that melts rock, which is forced up toward the crust as magma
intrusive igneous rock body formed when magma is squeezed into a horizontal crack that cuts across rock layers and hardens
opening in Earth's surface that often forms a mountain when layers of lava and volcanic ash erupt and build up
fossils that form when some or all of the original materials that made up the organisms are replaced with minerals
fossil formed when the remains of a once living organism are subjected to heat and pressure, leaving only a thin film of carbon behind
fossil of a species that existed on Earth for only a short time, were abundant, and were widespread geographically
principle of superposition
states that for undisturbed layers of rock, older rocks lie underneath younger and younger rocks
method to determine the order of events and relative age of rocks by examining the position of rocks in a sequence
process that uses the properties of atoms in rocks and other objects to determine their exact ages, in years
states that Earth processes happening today are similar to those that happened in the past
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