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Developmental Psychology Chapter 9
Terms in this set (51)
children in this pre-logical stage of thought process have predictable ways of reasoning and limitations in their thinking (ages 3-7)
Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities
the belief that others experience the world the same way you do
self-talk that is said aloud
speech taking into account the perspective of the listener (this transition happens at the end of pre operational stage)
three mountain task
A task invented by Piaget and Inhelder, in which children are asked to look at a model of a landscape marked by hills and mountains and tell how it looks from a perspective different from their own. Younger children usually cannot tell what view the other user sees the mountains from
the tendency to focus on one aspect of a task
the ability to focus on several aspects of an object or problem and relate them
Conservation (Piaget's Theory)
a recognition that the core component of a substance remains the same despite transformations in the appearance of the substance (changes in liquid volume, numerical quantity, length, and mass)
Children in the ___________ stage struggle with tasks about conseravation
refers to the observation that once a child has the capability to perform a certain task or function they don't know how to immediately apply the concept to other functions or tasks that share the same conceptual ideation.
requires the understanding that a superordinate class of objects contains subordinate classes
What are two criticisms of Piaget's Theory?
*Concerns surround whether children actually go through stages in their thinking or whether Piaget viewed children primarily in isolation, neglecting the role of social interactions.
*Critics suggest that Piaget underestimated young children's thought processes; some studies contradict the conservation component of preoperational theory
What are some implications of Piaget's Theory for Preschool Classrooms
*children learn best by being engaged in an activity
*children need many opportunities to explore objects and their properties
*children's reasoning is best explored through strategic questioning
*children can be encouraged to be less egocentric, by sharing their viewpoint and being exposed to the viewpoint of others
co-construction of knowledge
children construct knowledge with the assistance of others; learning first at the social level, then gradually internalizing that learning
development of language and dialog advances cognitive development
internal speech used to guide behavior; serves as a foundation for self-guidance and self-regulation. More inner speech = more attentive
Adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance
What are some criticisms of Vygotsky's Theory?
*The nature of how instruction actually advances children's development has not been fully described and is considered by some as vague.
*Conditions under which collaborative activity
benefits children's cognitive development needs to be further investigated.
Who is vital within a classroom for helping a child learn? (Vygotskys)
the teacher or caregiver
What is important to consider when determining the types of scaffolding required to continue learning?
the zone of proximal development
What should be provided for task mastery?
Information processing theory
information moves from being perceived to being stored and then is eventually retrieved
information from the environment enters here
*the encoding of information occurs here.
*this encoded information moves into long-term memory for storage and is retrieved from long-term memory
information that is encoded well is stored here. stays within your memory
Between ages 3-6 what is there a spurt of growth in?
conscious control of thoughts, emotions, and actions to accomplish goals or solve problems
"hot" executive functions
self-monitoring and emotional regulation during social and emotional challenges
"cold" executive functions
self-monitoring during cognitive tasks
What shows some advances of executive function?
*improvement in focusing and shifting attention
*steady increase in the working memory
*increases in response inhibition
*delay of gratification
*requires effortful control
*advances in cognitive flexibility
incorporates aspects of information-processing theory by focusing children's attention, memory, and strategy use
What does neo-piagetian theory blend?
Piaget's theory with information-processing theory
What are some criticisms of Information-Processing Theory?
*Based on core metaphor of the computer
*Assumes development is linear and logical
*Overlooks the role of other important
processes such as creativity and motivation
Ways to improve Information-Processing Theory for Preschool Classrooms?
*teach ways to symbolize information
*encourage children to talk about what they are doing while tasking
*provide games that give children experience with response inhibition
*provide activities that involve shifting sets
What is language development defined by?
syntax, semantics, pragmatics
the way words are combined to form phrases or sentences
the meaning of sentences or phrases
Rules of conversation (
the social rules of language, includes taking turns,
staying on topic,
following social cues,
eye contact, the ability
to interpret what others
When does language development really pick up? 10 new words per day on average.
process of learning a word
rapidly by forming a response to its meaning: ability to master a new word by hearing it used in context
not using adjectives correctly
a process by which children apply rules of grammar even in cases where exceptions apply
As a parent, how can one help preschool children become readers?
*have daily conversations and read with them
*keep printed materials and books in the home
*read everyday with children
*limit TV and technology usage
*let children observe you reading and writing
What are four important early number concepts?
*written number symbols
knowing that each object just needs to be counted once
Linear number line
the sense that numbers proceed in order and differences between numbers are the same
computation such as adding or subtracting
National Association for Education of Young Children
American Academy of Pediatrics
What are quality standards within preschool programs?
*health and physical safety
Sets with similar terms
ch 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Chapter 4: Theories of Cognitive Development
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