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SOC Module 2 Exam
Terms in this set (45)
Dates of the first Wounded Knee
December 29th, 1890
Dates of the second Wounded Knee
Why did AIM choose to occupy Wounded Knee? How did Law enforcement respond?
- chose it over the BIA office building because of its sacred nature and symoblic power . Law enforcement positioned roadblocks and a fortified perimeter around the site
Who were the GOONS and who did they side with and why?
Lakota Indians who sided with the US government because they claimed that AIM represented a communist backed insurrection that was trying to topple the federal govt.
What is a hotchkiss gun?
-early form of a machine gun, 37mm revolving cannon developed in 1884
land against troops and on sea as an anti-torpedo boat gun
-fired an explosive shell of approximately 1 lb. (450 gms) to a range of 4,000 yards. Peak firing rate of 60 rounds a minute so was a very accurate and deadly weapon, especially against unarmed women and children.
Why were guns aimed at Lakota at Wounded Knee?
The US Cavalry and White were anxious about the Host Dance because they feared the Lakota were preparing to begin hostilities as they left the reservations to practice the dance. The guns were aimed to combat any "trouble" that developed and their presence was ordered to restore order and ease tensions.
Where is Wounded Knee located? What state? What body of water is it named after?
It lies within the Pine Ridge Reservation, territory of the Oglala Lakota. South Dakota. Wounded Knee Creek which runs throughout the region.
Did everyone in the US military feel that Wounded Knee was justified?
No, General Miles called the event a brutal, cold-blooded massacre. Many of the public also agreed that it was a massacre.
Why did the military give out medals of honor for wounded knee?
wanted to change the perception of the event to a victory instead of a massacre and restore their public image.
What was Mile's view and what did he try to do?
He immediately charged Colonel Forsyth with negligence for not controlling the situation better and preventing the killing and appointed a board to look into the charges.
What were the main goals of AIM? What were there demands at wounded Knee?
They hoped to fight for civil rights and speak out against social and treaty abuses. They also wanted to discover their cultural roots and be proud of their heritage.
At wounded knee, they wanted the govt. to conduct investigations into the BIA and management of the South Dakota reservations. They also wanted them to review treaties signed with the Lakota especially which gave the Sioux rights to the Black Hills.
Who was Wovoka/Jack Wilson?
founder of the Ghost Dance Revitalization Movement which inspired a spiritual renewal that spread among a large majority of Native American Tribes in the 19th century.
-prophechy of renewed earth and a return to traditional Indian Lifestyle, an existence free from the intervention and colonialism of White Society
What are the 3 major divisions of the Sioux?
Lakota, Nakota, Dakota
Is every Sioux a Lakota? Is every Lakota person an Oglala?
Sioux is the overarching term for all the Lakota, Nakota, Dakota dialect groups
Lakota are subdivided into 7 bands, so people will refer to themselves as Oglala or Minneconjou or maybe say Oglala Sioux or Oglala Lakota.
What did the White Buffalo calf woman bring to the people? Why is she a white buffalo- what does she signify?
-it integrates all rituals and represents the total lakota universe
-buffalo guard women's chastity and fertility
-white buffalo is a sign of hope and indication of good times to come(abundance and manifestation)
What happened at the battle of little big horn what cavalry unit was involved and how does it relate to wounded Knee 1890?
George Custer's 7th Cavalry loses- all troops were killed by the Indian military confederation.
-established anger at Lakota
- brought by the white calf woman
-integrates all rituals, and represents the total Lakota Universe. The red willow bark tobacco is sealed with fat from the heart of a buffalo. It has engravings of all Earth's creatures and the smoke symbolizes the carrying of prayers to wakantanka. It is offered to the four directions ritually when in use and must be handled carefully as it is seen as a "loaded gun"
calendrical ritual performed in midsumer.
occurs over several days
-males take the vow
-young girls select the sacred tree
-women are skewered on back
- seen as sacrificial act where the dancers efforts benefit and renew the entire tribal community.
-from 1-4 days the person fasts and prays continually staying in a shallow pit on a hill or mountain.
- used to pain power, seek a vision, receive direction, interpret dreams, effect healing
-messages received benefit the entire Lakota community
totality of the sacred, sum total of life-giving forces-- the collective holy-
Wakantankas created the universe
upon the death the persons (wanagi) travels the ghost road until it meets an old woman who determines its fate to go on to paradise or return to earth to live as a shade
the animating force of the universe; something mysterious or hard to understand
Revitalization Movement category of Wounded Knee 1890
Revitalization movement wounded knee 1973
-AIM was nativistic
What is the seventh-generation prophecy and how does it relate to the DAPL?
There is an ancient Lakota prophecy about a black snake that would slither across the land, desecrating the sacred sites and poisoning the water before destroying the Earth
Why is the protest called standing rock?
The Great Sioux Reservation comprised all of present-day South Dakota west of the Missouri River, including the sacred Black Hills and the life-giving Missouri River.
What happened on July 2016?
Standing Rock Sioux tribe learned that the US Army Corps of Engineers granted approval for the DAPL to construct a pipeline that would run through the territiroy within a half mile of the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation
What is the Standing Rock Platform? (i.e. what treaty are they claiming is being violated; why are they against the DAPL?)
Treat of Fort Laramie of 1851- states that th eUS bound itself in this treaty to protext the Tribe's rights and soveriengty
In November 2016 what actions were taken against the protesters?
water cannons were used and tear gas and sound weapons
What happened on Dec. 4 & 5 2016?
Corps made the decision to not grant the easement permit for the DAP to continue.
Dec 5th- camp had to be shut down
What was the significance of President Trump's Jan 24 2017 executive order?
construction of the pipeline would resume.
Marches and protests continue
How many people were still living in the camp on Jan. 31 2017?
What happened on Feb. 1 2017: who raided the camp, what did they do, and why?
The National Guard and local police raided Standing Rock Camp on February 1, 2017, evicting, and arresting, seventy-six protesters
Know the details of the pipeline leak on April 4, 2017.
pipeline leaked 84 gallons of oil into South Dakota
Estimated cost to taxpayers of the protest
over 40 million dollars
paritioned Indian land into 160 acre farm parcels
-goal was assimilation into agriculture
Placement of indian children into Indian Boarding schools and mission schools (learn english language, job training, indian assiimilation)
Indian Reorganization Act
end allotment policy
-keep tribal autonomy
-self-rule but limited Sovereignty
-tribal councils were encouraged to sign mineral leases
-tribes developed constitution, held elections,
-BIA controlled social service funding and had some power over tribal decisions
Indian Claims Commission
settled disputed tribal land claims from "Broken" treaties. Tribes paid estimated "price per acre" of the land at time of seizure.
US proprietary relationship with successful tribes was "terminated"
-reservation land could now be sold not kept in trust for tribe. Ended federal relationship with 109 tribes; they were subjected to state/local control and lost federal services
-Goal was to assimilate into US urban culture
Indian relocation Act
relocated indian youth and young families to major urban centers in the USA
-incentives: job training, opportunities of urban areas: better education
-indians signed agreements that they would not return to their reservations.
Founding of AIM
Goals: Self-rule, end policy of tribal termination, restore treaty rights, land restitution, indian civil rights under constitution
-inspired by black panthers
- Lakota-style is "official" spirituality of Movement
-forged ties with Traditionalist leaders on reservations; fused urban and rural activism
Occupation of "The rock" prison ins San Francisco
19 month occupation
-demanded treaty rights
-established a spiritual center
Trail of Broken Treaties 1972
indians from across nation travel to D.C. "caravans"
-unplanned occupation of BIA headquarters before 1972 election
-sit in erupted into a riot; destroyed files, property
Significance of Dances with Wolves and 1990
-stereotypes of "noble savages" revived.
-nostalgia for indian past
- inter-cultural contact
-US regret for colonialism
- Wanna-be Indian
-Use of Lakota Language
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