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China Test 2 Terms

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Long March
October 1934-1935, Mao Zedong and his troops are forced to embark on a 6000+ mile march to escape the Nats. They make it out and reform and thus the CCP is saved. Mao is made undisputed leader.
War of Resistance
Japanese invade Manchuria 1937, Nats and Commies form united front to defeat them; in reality, CCP rebuilds and regains strength, Nats get worn out. Ends 1945 USA bomb.
Mass Line Strategy
developed by CCP and Mao during War of Resistance, would work to gain support of millions of peasants who would fight guerrilla warfare
Civil War
after Japan surrenders to Allies, Commies and nats scramble to get former occupied territory; there is fighting, eventually communists win and have a lot of support, in 1949 PLA marches into Beijing and Mao declares himself ruler
PLA
People's Liberation Army, the communists army during the civil war
October 1, 1949
when Mao Zedong declares that the People's Republic of China is established from atop Tianamen Gate.
Taiwan/December 8
this is when Chiang Kai-Shek and Guomindang flees to Taiwan in defeat 1949
Karl Marx
thought up communism/marxism, from Germany mid 1800s, intellectual
Marxism
dictatorship of the proteleriat; not bourgeoisie; would end dialectic process; one class
Communist Manifesto
marx's book where he described Marxism
Great Proleteriat Class
working class, would become rulers
Vladimir Lenin
expounded on Marxism, worked on how to take power, Russia early 1900s, led Russian revolution
Marxism-Leninism
lenin talked more about seizing power, said use a small group with support of proletariat, use any method available, seize everything and redistribute it, included peasants as well as factory workers
The ends justifies the means
meant do whatever it takes to get communism, even lying and killing is fine
Maoism
mao's take on communism; dealt with peasants, said a ton of peasants could take over too
Personality Cult
when a leader (mao for ex) tries to get the people to believe they're almost a god so they can stay in power even if they are lousy
Collectivization
land redistributed; peasants work together
First Five Year Plan
1953-1957 designed to develop heavy industries and create jobs; mediocre outcome
Great Leap Forward
Mao's effort to industrialize China quam celerrime, create communes, people make steel, but not enough food = famine and disaster 1958-59 or so
Communes
govt relocated people here, each 750,000 people: officials decide what everyone does
Backyard Furnaces
everyone makes steel: make backyard furnaces to make it in; steel lousy
Peng Dehuai
Minister of Defence, criticized Great Leap, Mao is mad, removes him from his post: his supporters rally behind him and then Mao has to start up the Cultural Revolution to get rid of these scum
Great Proletariat Cultural Revolution
began 1966, effort by Mao to get rid of rightists, uses red guards, millions harassed; tapers off early 70s, official end 1976
Red Guards
student radicals who went around and harassed rightists, destroying 4 olds
Four Olds
Old Ideas, Customs, Culture, Habits; mao wanted to get rid of them
Ten Lost Years
1966-1976; decade of harassment and disorder
Liu Shaoqi
Chinese leader who was denounced during cultural revolution by Mao for being a "capitalist roader"; Mao viewed him as a threat to power, died under harsh treatment in 1969
Zhou Enlai
Chinese leader who was important in the restructuring of society and economy, struggled for power with gang of four in early 70s, however Zhou died 1976, supported Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
most powerful man in China late 70s-90s, leader in CCP before that, mao didn't like him but Zhou did, after Mao's death won power struggle, technically vice-chairman but really in charge, made ecomonic reforms
Jiang Qing
Mao's wife, member of gang of four
Quotes from Mao/Little Red Book
the little red book the red guards would carry around
Lin Biao
Chinese leader who was important in Civil War, Mao's designated successor, but died in a plane crash 1971 after a failed attempt to oust Mao, so he is considered one of counter-revolutionary parties during Cultural Revolution, other is Jiang Qiang
Gang of Four
Jiang Qing and 3 others, put on trial for causing excesses of Cultural Revolution, sentenced to death but commuted to life in prison
70/30
Deng's leadership said Mao was 70% good for China, 30% bad
Open Door Policy
Deng encouraged foreign contact, visited USA, Chinese now can study abroad etc, American tourists can come into China: outside knowledge and foreign investement
Special Economic Zones
Shenzen was the first in 1979, where there was more capitalism, foreign business: innovation stimulated, huge economic growths
Chinese-Style Socialism
what Deng called this new mixture of capitalism and communism
Four Modernizations
agriculture, industry, technology, defence: one of Deng's guiding slogans to his new economic rules
Four Cardinal Principles
retaining Socialist path, dictatorship of proletariat, leadership of Communist Party, and ideology of Marxism, Leninism, and Maoism: another of Deng's guiding slogans: what he wanted to do
Shenzen
first SEZ, on border of Hong Kong
Responsibility System
allowing workers to keep extra earnings, implemented by Deng
Zhao Ziyang
party secretary, said the protesters at tianamen had some points, but that it needed to be stopped, eventually recommends crackdown and it works
Goddess of Democracy
statue created during tianamen protests, made in only 4 days, like the statue of liberty, stood for democracy
Democracy Wall
long brick wall in Beijing, activists in democracy movement would post stuff on it, in 1978, but wall closed 1979
Hu Yaobang
Chinese leader with Deng, supported the reforms, when he died in 1989 students wanted him to be commemorated, day before his funeral students march on tianamen square, causing the protests
June 4-5, 1989
the bulk of the violence: whole deal with clearing square by 6 am, it is, then on the 5th in the morning the thing with the people coming up and then running and getting shot and coming back etc etc etc
People's Daily
a daily Chinese newspaper, did a good job reporting on cultural revolution, everything has to be approved by government through, so it is like the newspaper of the CCP