29 terms

Thinking and language

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Cognition
The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communating
Concept
a mental grouping of similar objects,events,ideas, or people
prototype
A mental image or best example of a category. matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories.
algorithm
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with usually speedier- but also more error-prone - heuristics.
heuristic
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently.
insight
A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
fixation
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set
mental set
tendency to approach a problem in one particular way , often a way that has been successful in the past
fuctional fixedness
the tendency to think of thingd only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
representativeness heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information
availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availibility in memory ; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
belief perseverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
intuition
an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit , conscious reasoning
framing
the way an issue posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
language
our spoken , written , or signed words and the way we combine them to communicate meaning.
phoneme
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
morpheme
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning
grammar
in a language, a system of rules that enable us to communicate with and understand others
semantics
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words , and sentencesin a given language; study of meaning
syntax
the ruke of combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
babbling stage
beginning at about 4 months; stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
one-word stage
the stage in speech development from about age 1 to 2 , during which a child speaks mostly in single words
two-word stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a a child speaks mostly two-word statements.
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which child speaks like a telegram -'go car'- using mostly nouns and verbs
aphasia
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area( speaking) ot to Wernicke's area (understanding)
Broca's area
controls language expression - an area on the frontal lobe , usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movement involved in speech
Wernicke's area
controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
linguistic determinism
whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think