72 terms

MODULE 7 Fact or Fallacy

STUDY
PLAY
Validity
An extent to which tests measure what was intended, and to which data, inferences and actions produced from tests and other processes are accurate.
evidence
The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid.
Inference
A conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning
Reliability
An extent to which repeated observations and/or measurements taken under identical circumstances will yield similar results.
Accuracy
A measure of how close a measurement is to the true value of that measurement
Systematic error
An error that is consistently made throughout an experiment and results in measurements that are biased in a particular direction.e.g to high or too low.
Random error
Unpredictable fluctuations to measurements.
Bias in measurement
Bias is a quantitative term describing the difference between the average of measurements made on the same object and its true value
Precision
A measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another
Uncertainty in measurements
The range of possible values within which the true value of the measurement lies.
Data
Facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations.
Sample
A subset of the population
Sample/selection bias
The effect of having a sample that does not represent all segments of the population
Sample size
The number of times a measurement is replicated in data collection
sample error
This is caused by observing the sample as a representative of the population instead of the whole population.
Margin of error
The uncertainty of measurement above and below the mean.
confidence level
A degree of certainty that a population survey or study is accurate
confidence interval
A range of values that is likely to include the population mean.
cherry picking
Selectively present statistics or data supporting a point of view while ignoring competing data.
Convenience sampling
Choosing a sample that is easy to get however it does not represent the population
Outlier
A value that "lies outside" (is much smaller or larger than) most of the other values in a set of data.
Efficacy
The ability to produce a desired or intended result.
Control group
The group that does not receive the experimental treatment.
Placebo
A medicine or procedure that has no therapeutic effect.
placebo effect
A beneficial effect produced by a placebo drug or treatment, which cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must, therefore, be due to the patient's belief in that treatment.
Double blind trial
Neither the doctors or patient know if they are receiving a placebo or the actual drug
Single-blind trial
Occurs when research subjects do not know whether they are in the experimental group or the control group, but the researchers know this information
clinical trail
A scientific study, or an organised test of medicines and new treatment options involving patient and non-patient human volunteers.
Mean
The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
Median
The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
Experimental group
The group in an experiment that receives the variable being tested.
Treatment
A specific condition applied to the individuals in an experiment.
Mode
The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
Correlation
A measure of the relationship between two variables
Causation
A cause and effect relationship in which one variable controls the changes in another variable.
confounding variable
A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
Hawthorn effect
The tendency of people to behave differently if they know that they are being observed.
Halo effect
A type of cognitive bias in which our overall impression of a person influences how we feel and think about his or her character.
Mozart Effect
A set of research results indicating that listening to Mozart's music may induce a short-term improvement on the performance of certain kinds of mental tasks known as "spatial-temporal reasoning;"
observational study
This type of study draws inferences from a sample to a population where the independent variable is not under the control of the researcher because of ethical concerns or logistical constraints.
Cognitive Bias
A mistake in reasoning, evaluating, remembering, or other cognitive process, often occurring as a result of holding onto one's preferences and beliefs regardless of contrary information.
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
Innate bias
The tenancy of an individual to draw false conclusion based on observations and personal experiences and emotional responses.
internal validity
The extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences from a study
Experimental bias
Results that are influenced by the experimenter
claim
An assertion, usually supported by evidence
Terminology
The special words or phrases that are used in a particular field
Theory
Explanation of why phenomena happen and is supported by empirical evidence.
Empirical evidence
Data collected through direct observation
Hypothesis
An initial explanation that can be tested by experimentation to be supported or refuted.
Belief
A mechanism in which humans understand the world.
Scientific belief
A mechanism that requires empirical evidence to support a claim.
Law
A description of what is happening in given circumstances,often represented by a mathematical relationship.
Conflict of interest
A situation in which a person in a position of responsibility or trust has competing professional or personal interests that make it difficult to fulfill his or her duties impartially.
Carcinogen
A cancer-causing substance
Insecticide resistance
Consequence of artificial selection where insecticide resistant insects that survive breed to form a resistant population.
Vested interest
Special interest shown by people, organizations, or corporations that stand to benefit from a policy
Pseudoscience
A collection of beliefs or practices mistakenly regarded as being based on scientific method, however, lacks valid scientific evidence.
Burden of proof
The obligation to present evidence to support one's claim.
Falsified
Alter or mislead in a deliberate way.
Replicable
repeatable
Peer review
A process by which the procedures and results of an experiment are evaluated by other scientists who are in the same field or who are conducting similar research.
Retracted
The removal of work die to misconduct or fraud
Fraud
A deliberate deception intended to secure an unfair or unlawful gain
Reputable
Having a good reputation due to reliability and accuracy of the service.
Random sampling
A type of sampling that ensures that each member of population is equally likely to be chosen as part of the sample.
non-random sampling
An alternative sampling method to random sampling, where the sample is not chosen at random.
population sampling
The process through which a group of representative items of the population are used to predicting the attributes of the entire population.
Attrition bias
occurs when participants drop out of a long-term experiment or study.
Populations
In scientific sampling this refers to a finite or infinite collection of items under consideration.
fallacy
A mistaken belief, especially one based on unsound argument.
logical fallacy
Potential vulnerabilities or weaknesses in an argument
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