The application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes
Facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations.
A description of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity measured.
An extent to which tests measure what was intended, and to which data, inferences and actions produced from tests and other processes are accurate
An extent to which repeated observations and/or measurements taken under identical circumstances will yield similar results.
How close the measurements are to each other
An error that always occurs in the same direction.Can be due to a number of factors such as instrument calibration,parallax error or a new environmental condition while taking measurements.
Caused by a sudden change in experimental conditions
Data that varies in a continuous manner
A discrete representation of data
The rate at which reactants change into products over time
Material Safety Data Sheet
Work Health and Safety
Reducing systematic error
This can be done by recalibrating the instrument, assessing and controlling environmental conditions and taking multiple measurements using more than one observer.
Caused by mistakes due to lack of care or training.
Reducing Gross error
Double check your measurements and learn how to use any technical instrument well.
Reducing random error
Take multiple samples to reduce the spread of data and reduce random error effects.
Advantages of digital technologies
Higher level of precision,comparable with other systems and networks and observations that are precise.
Disadvantages of digital technologies
Expensive to run and require a level of expertise. Poor resolution of the scale can compromise accuracy they may not be accurate if not calibrated or used correctly.Can increase chances of instrumental and enviroenmtal error.
Advantages of analog technologies
Low cost and easier to use. Accurate however not usually as precise as digital equivalent.
Disadvantages of analog technologies
Accuracy can be compromised by poor resolution of the scale,e.g going up by 5s instead of 1s. can increase chances oparallax error
Uncertainty of measuring instrument
Estimated as plus + or minus - half the smallest scale division. For example, a ruler with 1mm graduations will have an uncertainty of +/- 0.5 mm around any measurement made.
Resolution of a measuring instrument
the smallest change in a quantity that gives a change in the reading that can be seen
The rate at which reactants change into products over time
Energy needed to get a reaction started
The law that states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the temperature of the gas increases and the volume of the gas decreases as the temperature of the gas decreases
For a reaction to occur, the particles must collide, they must collide with the appropriate orientation, and they must collide with sufficient energy.
Catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
Chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction.
An enzyme which no longer functions because its shape has been changed due to heat,acidity or other factor.
Energy needed to get a reaction started.This is associated with enzymes.
A principle that describes the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperature
All types of human-made systems, tools, machines and processes that can help solve human problems or satisfy needs or wants, including modern computational and communication devices.
the laws that state the mathematical relationships between the volume, temperature, pressure, and quantity of a gas
The total distance divided by total time
Information created by a person or persons directly involved in a study or observing an event.
an effect or result
Examine and judge carefully.
A system of moral principles.
Secondary sources investigation
An investigation that involves systematic scientific inquiry by planning a course of action and sourcing data and/or information from other people, including written information, reports, graphs, tables, diagrams and images.
The act of collecting living organisms from the environment be used for food, medicinal purposes and technologies.
Newton's Laws of Motion
Three basic laws that describe how objects respond to forces
Newton's Second Law of Motion
The acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied.
Newtons first law of motion
The scientific law that states that an object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion with a constant speed and direction unless acted on by a force
Newton's Third Law of Motion
Every force has an equal and opposite reaction force.
Law of reflection
the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
Law of Refraction (Snell's Law)
Formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different media (water, glass, etc).
An analytical method in which X-rays change direction on contact with matter, resulting in changes in radiation intensity, that is used to determine the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms.
a device that uses a gas-filled metal tube to detect radiation
Large Hadron Collider
Gigantic scientific instrument. Particle accelerator. Used to study smallest known particles.
A particle predicted by theory. It is linked with the mechanism by which physicists think particles acquire mass.
Programs that attempt to model processes and various phenomena.
Discovery of radioactivity effect on atomic theory
Disproved Dalton's assumption that atoms are indivisible
A spontaneous process in which unstable nuclei lose energy by emitting radiation
Radiotherapy (radiation therapy)
the use of radiation to kill localized cancer cells
A weapon with an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions.
genetic technologies examples
DNA fingerprinting, genetic engineering, gene therapy, cloning