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The Middle Ages Vocabulary
Terms in this set (51)
Also known as the medieval period, the time between the collapse of the Roman Empire and the beginning of the Renaissance. It had roots in: (1) the classical heritage of Rome, (2) the beliefs
of the Roman Catholic Church, and (3) the customs of various Germanic tribes.
A Germanic people who held power in the Roman province of Gaul.
A place where communities of monks live lives of devotion to God in isolation from the outside world
Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
a dynasty of Frankish rulers, lasting from A.D. 751 to 987. This dynasty included Charlemagne.
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Dynasty, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival.
In feudal Europe, a person who controlled land and could therefore grant estates to vassals
land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service
A knight who promised to support a lord in exchange for land
mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lords' lands in exchange for fiefs.
people who could not lawfully leave the place where they were born. Though bound to the land, they were not slaves. Their lords could
not sell or buy them. But what their labor produced belonged to the lord.
a large estate owned by a knight or lord
A family's payment of one-tenth of its income to a church
a complex set of ideals, demanded
that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters. He devoted himself to his
earthly feudal lord, his heavenly Lord, and his chosen lady. He would also devote to helping others, especially the poor
a mock battle in which knights would compete against one another to display their fighting skills
A medieval poet and musician who traveled from place to place, entertaining people with songs of courtly love
A body of officials who perform religious services, such as priests, ministers or rabbis. (church officials, most commonly bishops and priests)
one of the Christian ceremonies in which God's grace is transmitted to people(important religious ceremonies)
The body of laws governing marriage and the religious practices of a Christian church(Church laws)
Holy Roman Empire
An empire established in Europe in the 10th century A.D., originally consisting mainly of lands in what is now Germany and Italy. This was the strongest state in Europe until 1100.
a ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials.
the selling or buying of a position in a Christian church
relating to a style of church architecture that developed in medieval Europe, featuring ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, flying buttresses, pointed arches, and tall spires. The pieces faced up to the heavens rather than pointing and/or dragging downwards.
The pope that issued the crusades in 1095 CE
A "holy war" to gain control of the Holy Land.
The leader of the Muslims in the third crusade and captured Jerusalem in 1187.
Richard the Lion-Hearted
English king, leader of the Third Crusade, agreed to a truce with Saladin
The long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain
a court held by the Church to suppress heresy.
villages began to organize their lands into three fields instead of two. Two of the fields were planted and the other lay fallow (resting) for a year. Under this new system, farmers could grow crops on two-thirds of their land each year, not just on half of it.
an organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members.
the expansion of the trade and business that transformed European economies due to availability of trade goods and new ways of doing business.
A medieval merchant-class town dweller.
everyday language of a homeland
argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument. Inspired by Aristotle and wrote the Summa Theologicae.
Scholars who gathered and taught at medieval European universities. (schoolmen)
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England in 1066 and became the first Norman to be King of England
English king who added French lands to English holdings by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine
(civil law) a unified body of law established by following earlier judicial decisions
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
A body of representatives that makes laws for a nation(legislative group)
King of France elected in 987 and founding the Capetian dynasty (940-996)(used to be an undistinguished duke of France)
King of France; used paid middle-class officials; granted charters; organized army; created a national tax(one of the most powerful Capetians who sought revenge on the English monarchy, with little success)
An assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France.(church leaders, great lords, and the third class: commoners, merchants, wealthy land owners)
City in France where the pope moved temporarily, and was a reason why the Great Schism occurred.
the official split between the Roman Catholic and Byzantine churches that occurred. Caused by two popes living in different areas trying to rule.
An Englishman who preached that Jesus Christ, not the pope, was the true head of the Church.
a professor in Bohemia who taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than that of the pope
disease brought to Europe from the Mongols during the Middle Ages. It killed 1/3 of the population and helps end Feudalism. Causes: Rats, fleas.
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. Launched by Edward III from 1337 to 1453. French side won.
Joan of Arc
teenage French peasant girl who led french army to victory over the english in the 100 year's war. She saw visions and used them to drive the English from France.
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