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AP US History Vocab 3
Terms in this set (47)
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
He served in the Continental Army during the Revolution. In the 1790s he had embraced the Federalist Party. Marshall tossed the Republicans a few crumbs by ruling that the Supreme Court could not compel Madison to deliver Marbury's commission. Then he argued that the Court could not issue a writ of mandamus in its original jurisdiction. The 1st time the court had declared an act of Congress unconstitutional.
power of the Supreme Court to decide whether the acts of a President or laws passed by Congress are constitutional
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Lewis and Clark
Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
War of 1812
War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism
British practice involving kidnapping American sailors (it violated America's neutral rights)
The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
First vice president during Jackson's presidency, Staunchly pro-slavery vice-president, engineering the Compromise of 1850 and helping further split the nations
First national road building project funded by Congress. It made travel and transportation of goods much easier because it was one continuous road that was in good condition.
an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819, Cheif justice john marshall limits of the US constition and of the authority of the federal and state govts. one side was opposed to establishment of a national bank and challenged the authority of federal govt to establish one. supreme court ruled that power of federal govt was supreme that of the states and the states couldnt interfere
Panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of Europena demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
John Q. Adams/ Adams Onis Treaty
new englander who became pres. - not well-liked by citizens. accused of making a corrupt bargain to win election. focused on economy, deal that secured state of Florida from Spanish, Andrew Jackson was in Florida inciting the indians
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
Election of 1824
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain."
party or special interest groups formed by like-minded members of congress to confer on issues of mutual concern
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Modern Democratic Party
the modern-day, major political party whose antecedents can be traced to the Democratic Republican Party of the early 1800s; it was born after the disputed election of 1824, in which candidates-all Democratic Republicans-divided on issues and by sections. Supporters of Andrew Jackson, outraged by the election's outcome, organized around Jackson to prepare for the election of 1828. After that election, this organization became known as the Democratic Party.
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
this term describes the spirit of the age led by Andrew Jackson. During this period, more offices became elective, voter restrictions were reduced or eliminated, and popular participation in politics increased. The Democratic Part, led by Jackson appealed to the new body of voters by stressing the belief in rotation in office, economy in government, governmental response to popular demands and decentralization of power.
Universal manhood suffrage
principle that every man had the right to vote, regardless of whether he owned property.
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Second Bank of the United States
chartered in 1816, much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.
the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
Tariff of 1828/Tariff of Abominations/ States Rights
a protective tariff passed by the U.S. Congress that came to be known as the "Tariff of Abominations" to its Southern detractors because of the effects it had on the Antebellum Southern economy; it was the highest tariff in U.S. peacetime and its goal was to protect industry in the northern United States from competing European goods by increasing the prices of European products.
Tariff of 1832
a tariff imposed by Jackson which was unpopular in the South; South Carolina nullified it, but Jackson pushed through the Force Act, which enabled him to make South Carolina comply through force; Henry Clay reworked the tariff so that South Carolina would accept it, but after accepting it, South Carolina also nullified the Force Act
issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Nat Turner's Rebellion
Rebellion in which Nat Turner led a group of slaves through virginia in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow and kill planter families
Martin Van Buren
a Democratic-Republican Senator from New York, rallied the factory workers of the North in support of Jackson. He became Jackson's V.P. after Calhoun resigned. Also became the leader of the Albany Regency, a clique of wealthy landowners who controlled New York politics.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
William Henry Harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery
an economy that allocates resources through the decentralized decisions of many firms and households as they interact in markets for goods and services
Boom and bust cycles
problem of free-market capitalism; left to its own under capitalism, the economy is either in a good blast or in a recession or depression; distribution of goods is based on ones ability to pay and not on ones needs
an American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
components of any device designed to specifications which insure that they will fit within any device of the same type. Invented by Eli Whitney
a loom operated mechanically, run by water putting the loom side by side wit hthe spinning machines in factories, changed workers job from running it to watching it, Invented in 1787, invented by Edward Cartwright , it speeded up the production of textiles
Lowell System/Waltham System
dormitories for young women where they were cared for, fed, and sheltered in return for cheap labor, mill towns, homes for workers to live in around the mills
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
Steamships proved their own versatility by advancing up rivers to points that sailboats could not reach because of inconvenient twists, turns, or winds.
Made of steel. Made local transit reliable and westward expansion possible for business and people. Before the civil war there was only about 30,000 miles of laid track, by 1890 the figure was nearly 6 times that.
machine invented by Samuel Morse in 1837 that used a system of dots and dashes to send messages across long distances electronically through a wire
a telegraph code in which letters and numbers are represented by strings of dots and dashes (short and long signals)
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