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Study for upcoming Earth science Assessment


A feature of Earth's surface formed by the processes that shape Earth's suface. (Examples: mountains, valley, hill, plain, mesa)


A triangular area of land formed from deposits at the mouth of a river.


A V-shaped valley eroded by a river

sand dune

A deposit of wind-blown sand


A large mass of moving ice and snow on land forming a u-shaped valley in the process.

physical weathering

Breaking down rocks through physical processes like freezing and thawing

chemical weathering

Breaking down rocks by agents such as natural acids and oxygen in which the chemical composition of rocks is changed


Processes by which sediments are carried away by wind, water, and ice


Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations.


An opening in the Earth's crust through which molten lava, ash, and gases are ejected.


Ground shaking caused by release of energy stored in Earth's crust.


a slide of a large mass of dirt and rock down a mountain or cliff

natural resources

Materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain

renewable resources

Natural resources that can be replaced.

nonrenewable resources

Is a natural resource which cannot be replenished or placed. EX: fossil fuels


A loose mixture of rock fragments, organic material, water, and air that can support the growth of vegetation.

sedimentary rock

A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are compacted and cemented together over time

metamorphic rock

A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.

igneous rock

A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface


A preserved remnant or impression of an organism that lived in the past.

fossil fuel

Coal, oil, natural gas, and other fuels that are ancient remains of plants and animals.

hydroelectric energy

Energy obtained from flowing water

solar energy

Energy from the sun that is converted into thermal or electrical energy.

wind energy

The energy captured by transforming the motion of air into electrical energy using a turbine

geothermal energy

Energy derived from the heat in the interior of the earth


Fuels, such as ethanol or methanol, that are created from the fermentation of plants, plant productsor animal waste.

frost wedging

The mechanical breakup of rock caused by the expansion of freezing water in cracks and crevices

water cycle

The continual movement of water among Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surface through evaporation, condensation, and precipitation

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