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AP psych quiz spinal cord
Terms in this set (35)
The spinal Cord
Complex cable of nerves that connects brain to rest of the body.
Carries motor impulses from the brain to internal organs and muscles.
Carries sensory information from extremities and internal organs to the brain
The spinal cord controls some protective reflex movements without any input from the brain.
The Peripheral Nervous System - two parts
Somatic Nervous System &
Autonomic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Consists of neurons that communicate between the body & brain
Motor Neuron & sensory neurons
Autonomic Nervous System
of the PNS is divided into two parts. The Sympathetic Division & The Parasympathetic Division
The Sympathetic Division
Activates the body for emergencies
Fight or flight response
It dilates pupils, inhibits tears, increases heart rate, increases breathing, relaxes bladder, ect
The Parasympathetic Division
Quotes the body & conserves energy
It contracts pupils, stimulates tears, slow heart, decreases breathing,contracts bladder, ect
The Endocrine System
Works together with the Nervous System to regulate body functioning.
It is a system of glands that release hormones.
Similar to neurotransmitters they carry messages to the body.
They organize the nervous system & body tissue
Trigger secondarysexual characteristics (pubic hair, breasts, voice, ect.)
Activate behavior - alertness & sleepiness, sexual behavior, ect.
Affect mood, emotional reactivity, ability to learn, ect.
Thyroid Gland , Pineal Gland, The Pancreas, Pituitary Glands, Gonads, Adrenal Glands
produces thyroxine that regulates metabolism.
produces melatonin, regulates sleep cycle.
produces insulin & glucagon, controls sugar in blood.
the "Master Gland" it controls growth & other glands
testes/males - ovaries/females, make testosterone & estrogen.
Affects reproductive organs, sexual behavior, physical development.
made of two parts, both affect body's reaction to stress.
Adrenal Cortex - produces steroids, regulates salt & carb metabolism
Adrenal Medulla - produces Adrenaline & prepares body for action
the study of how living things pass on traits from one generation to the next.
transmission of one trait from one generation to the next.
pairs of threadlike bodies that contain genes & line up within a cells nucleus - 23 pairs
basic elements of heredity that controls transmission of traits, DNA that carries directions for a trait(s)
Deoxyribonucleic Acid - main ingredient of chromosomes - only known molecule that can replicate/reproduce itself.
Organic molecule arranged in a double helix.
the sum total of all genes needed to create a human - ca. 300k
a member of gene pair that controls the appearance of a trait.
a member of a gene pair that controls the appearance of a trait only if it is paired with another recessive gene.
study of behavior from a genetic perspective, concern is to study the influence of heredity on behavior.
Strain Studies & Selection Studies
intensive inbreeding of animals over many generations in order to create a group of animals that are genetically very similar to one another and different from other groups of animals.
studies that estimate that heritability of a trait by breeding animals with other animals that have the same trait.
Family studies, Twin Studies, & Adoption Studies
studies of heritability in humans assume that if genes influence a certain trait, close relatives should be more similar with that trait distant relatives. - Plomin (non-shared environment)
Ex. Siblings of schizophrenics are about 8X more likely to have it than other children.
used to determine how heritable a trait disorder may be Identical twins would have that highest heritability.
Suggests heredity plays a role in schizophrenia
Does not rule out role of environment in shaping personality
Suggests intelligence & depression are affected by genetics
used to assess the influence of environment, (Minnesota study)
direct study of the structure & function of genes & genetic code. Asks how traits are carried on & why traits mutate?
Provides evidence of heritability of intelligence.
Found evidence for heritability if mental illness.
Examines the adaptive or survival value of behavior - cross cultural behavior
Psychological traits have "evolved" - physiological functions, sexual selection, etc.
Humans share 98.7% of our genes with chimps
Average variation in the genetic code between two people is less than 1%
the study of biological origins of behavior could lead to genocide & eugenics
This could lead to creation of categories of people such as soldiers, laborers, breeders. Ex. Nazi's
pseudo - science that deals with the improvement (by control of human mating) of hereditary qualities of a race or breed. (Hitler's Aryans)
During the 1900's - 1920's the U.S. Government practices Eugenics through immigration law, marriage law, and other programs. Galton, Ford, and Hitler.
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