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Terms in this set (41)
Essential Law Courts, these 13 government agencies were responsible for registering (or making official) royal edicts. Subdued by Louis XVI, they frustrate attempts by the monarchy to solve economic problems, choosing to serve their own interests under the label of defending liberty against the arbitrary power of the monarch.
Louis XV (1715-1774)
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 - 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, after which he was subsequently King of the French from 1791 to 1792, before his deposition and execution during the French Revolution. His father, Louis, Dauphin of France, was the son and heir apparent of Louis XV of France. Due to the Dauphin's death in 1765, Louis succeeded his grandfather in 1774.
Louis's indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France eventually to view him as a symbol of the perceived tyranny of the ancien régime, and his popularity deteriorated progressively
Charles Alexandre de Calonne
minister of France who proposed to encourage internal trade, lower taxes, nd transform peasants' services to money payments; urged introduction of new land tax that would require payments from all landowners regardless of social status; intended to make local assemblies to approve land taxes with voting power based on amount of land owned not social status
A Swiss-born banker who served as France's director general of finance in the late 1770s, with high hopes of instituting reform. As it turned out, Necker was able only to propose small efforts at eliminating costly inefficiencies. He did produce a government budget, however, for the first time in French history.
Tax on salt during pre-revolutionary France-included in the Estate's list of grievances.
An assembly of representatives from all three estates to approve the new tax solution. The first estate was made up of clergy of Roman Catholic Church. The second estate made up of rich nobles. The third estate was the lower class and peasant farmers
Clergy, Exempt from the Taille, a divided group in the 18th century France, as higher clergy were aristocrats and shared interests with the mobility, while parish priests were often commoners.
Nobility, also somewhat divided during the French Revolution period. Nobility of the sword were descendants of the medieval nobility, offices, military officers, and royal law courts.
Commoners, Overwhelming majority of society, included peasantry and growing Bourgeoisie. Their discontent was a powerful force during the French Revolution.
Abbe Emmanuel Sieyes ("What is the 3rd Estate?")
"What is the 3rd Estate?" -> makes an argument for nationalism, says the 3rd estate does all the work and the 1st and 2nd mooches, wants to double representation for 3rd estate from 300 to 600
cahiers de doleances
statements of local grievances drafted throughout France during the elections to the Estates-General, advocating a regular constitutional government abolishing fiscal privileges of the church and nobility
National Constituent Assembly
The king eventually gave into the National Assembly and requested that the FIrst and Second Estate to join the National Assembly. This new legislative body was known by this term., New name taken by the National Assembly
Tennis Court Oath
3 days after the formation of the National Assembly, the Third Estate arrived at their meeting place and found that they had been locked out. They met instead on the nearby Tennis Court and swore an oath that they would continue to meet until a constitution had been written.
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
A royal armory and state prison, it was attacked by commoners in the uprising. It was a symbol of Royal Despotism, and had been rumored to contain thousands of political prisoners. (In truth, only 5 forgers, and 2 mentally ill prisoners were inside.) It became a popular symbol of triumph over monarchal Despotism and the power of mob violence. Paris was abandoned to the insurgents; Louis XVI was informed that he could no longer rely on French troops to enforce his will. Louis XVI was forced to confirm Lafayette as the commander of the new "National Guard," and the national assembly was saved.
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
A document drafted by the National Assembly promising all men their natural rights and the freedom of expression. No mechanism to enforce these rights
Constitution of 1791
Constitution prepared by National Assembly which was increasingly referred to as the Constituent Assembly. Document complete in 1791. Established a unicameral(one-chambered) assembly which was the legislature(law-making body). The king had a suspensive(delaying) veto only therefore the executive branch of govt. was weak.
a French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791. Replaced the National Assembly
Olympe de Gouges
A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
A body of legislation passed in July 1790 that redefined the relationship between the clergy and the state in France. It allowed for the confiscation of church property formerly used to support the clergy, replacing it with a guarantee of state salaries for clergymen instead. It also stipulated that parish priests and bishops be elected just like public officials. The National Assembly attempted to enforce it by requiring the clergy to take an oath, divided public opinion of the French Revolution (1789-99) and galvanized religious opposition.
French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings. They were very conservative and hoped to restore the king to power.
City at which Louis XVI was apprehended while trying to escape from France to the Austrian Netherlands
Declaration of Pillnitz
A statement agreed upon by Leopold II and Fredrick William II to intervene if Louis XVI was threatened by revolution
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
These were the liberals of France who did not want to execute Louis XVI, but The Mountain did anyway
Louis's imprisonment was followed by the September massacres. Wild stories seized the city that imprisoned counter-revolutionary aristocrats/priests were plotting with the allied invaders. As a results, angry crowds invaded the prisons of Paris and summarily slaughtered half the men and women they found.
In the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
Edmund Burke (Reflections on the Rev. in France)
A member of the British House of Commons who belonged to the Whig party. Even though he believed the monarch's power should be limited by a constitution, wanted religious toleration for all and supported the American Revolution, he did not approve of the means by which the French revolutionaries were attempting to achieve these goals. He wrote his book in 1790 to criticize the French Revolution and convince the French that it would only end in disaster.
Committee of Public Safety
Established and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
levee en masse
A national draft in France in 1794, created under the Jacobins, of a citizen army with support from young and old, heralding the emergence of modern warfare.
was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution and the first President of the Committee of Public Safety. Danton's role in the onset of the Revolution has been disputed; many historians describe him as "the chief force in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic". A moderating influence on the Jacobins, he was guillotined by the advocates of revolutionary terror after accusations of venality and leniency to the enemies of the Revolution.
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue., Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.
Reign of Terror
(mid 1793 to mid 1794) when Maximillian Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator adn thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Republic of Virtue
Robespierre's desire to reshape France based on the idea of civic virtue from the writings of Rousseau. He attempted to created a secular version of what Cromwell attempted in England. Most of France was not on board with his vision of Virtue. Who wants to be good all of the time??
Society of Revolutionary Republican Women
Founded by Pauline Leon and Claire Lancombe. Its purpose was to fight the internal enemies of the revolution. Its members saw themselves as militant citizens. It became increasingly radical and was eventually banned.
Reaction to end of Terror. Because of the success of the French army (now 800,000 strong) many in France no longer willing to put up with Terror atmosphere - no longer a national emergency. Also, Robespierre and the Committee had antagonized all significant parties in France. Working Class radicals no longer supported him. His elimination of Danton caused Convention to distrust him. The Convention obtained "outlawing" of Robespierre on 9 Thermidor(July 27) 1794. He was guillotined the next day. The Thermidorean reaction lasted for several months thereafter. The Terror subsided, Jacobin clubs were closed and the powers of the Committee were reduced. There was a period of Middle Class moderate ascendancy.
Constitution of the Year III
a document that reflected the Themoridian determination to reject contitutional monarchy and democracy; provided for the Council of Elders and the Council of Five Hundred
1785-1799. Five man group. Passed a new constitution in 1795 that was much more conservative. Corrupt and did not help the poor, but remained in power because of military strength. By 1797 it was a dictatorship.
Conspiracy of Equals
Led by Babeuf. Tried to overthrow the Directory and replace it w/ a dictatorial democratic government which would abolish private property and enforce equality. Precurser to communism. Threat was put down easily. Babeuf guillontined.
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