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Chapter 12 : Tang and Song Era

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the situation at the end of the Qin-Han period...?
Non-Chinese nomads ruled much of China and a foreign religion, Buddhism, eclipsed Confucian teachings.
The dynasty that ended the period of political chaos after the fall of the Qin-Han was the
Sui
What was it like after the Han dynasty collapsed?
thought degenerated into the quest for magical cures, no new technology, trade and city life declined, nomadic raids
What made possible the rapid revival of empire under the Tang?
the preservation in the many kingdoms of the Confucian traditions that had been central to Chinese civilization
The man responsible for the creation of the Sui dynasty was
Wendi
What was the primary reform enacted during the reign of the first Sui emperor?
the creation of granaries to relieve the threat of famine
What led to the downfall of the Sui dynasty?
excessive expenses associated with grandiose building projects and military campaigns
What ministry of the central imperial government was responsible for the administration of the examination system?
Rites
entry into the Chinese bureaucracy...?
Although a higher percentage of candidates received office through the examination system than during the Han dynasty, birth continued to be important in securing high office.
What Tang ruler actually attempted to have Buddhism recognized as a state religion?
Empress Wu
What proved to be the most damaging attack on Buddhism's popularity with the people during the early Tang dynasty?
the Confucians' successful campaign to convince the emperor that the Buddhist monastic establishment represented an economic threat
What was the impact on Confucianism of the Tang repression of the Buddhists?
Confucianism emerged as the central ideology of Chinese civilization until the twentieth century.
What accounts for the relative weakness of the Song empire?
The military was subordinated to the civilian administrators of the scholar-gentry, leaving the dynasty vulnerable to nomadic dynasties on the frontier.
Why was the construction of the Grand Canal necessary?
The Yangtze River valley was becoming the major food-producing region of China by the late Tang era.
developments during the period of commercial expansion during the Tang and Song dynasties?
large markets, better commercial organization, more trade, more technology
intellectual schools was responsible for the production of most literary and artistic works during the Tang-Song era?
Confucian
What was the primary difference between marriages of the upper and lower classes in Tang-Song China?
Households of the lower classed tended not to be patriarchal.
What artisan was responsible for the development of movable type?
Li Bo
During the political crisis following the fall of the Han, the Great Wall
became ineffective as a barrier to invasion, because it was held by many small kingdoms.
The support of which of the following groups was most critical to the reunification of China under the Sui?
the nomadic warrior elite
Under the first Sui emperor...?
ever-ready granaries were created to relieve the threat of famine.
Excessive military expenses and grandiose building projects led to
the downfall of the second Sui emperor and the collapse of the dynasty.
Li Yuan was....?
the Duke of Tang, founder of the new dynasty.
What was the attitude of the Tang emperors toward the Confucian scholar-gentry?
The Tang supported the resuscitation of the Confucian scholar-gentry, often at the expense of the aristocracy.
What was the title reserved for those who passed the most difficult exams on all of Chinese literature?
jinshi
Pure Land Buddhism...?
stressed salvation
As a result of imperial suppression,
Buddhism survived in a reduced state without much political influence.
Yang Guifei was
an imperial concubine who exerted great influence on a Tang emperor and introduced many of her relatives into the imperial government.
What accounts for the relative weakness of the Song empire?
The military was subordinated to the civilian administrators of the scholar-gentry, leaving the dynasty vulnerable to nomadic dynasties on the frontier.
Under the Song emperors, the scholar-gentry
continued its ascent over its aristocratic and Buddhist rivals
Zhu Xi was...?
the most prominent of the neo-Confucians during the Song era.
The growing influence of neo-Confucianism in China during the Tang-Song era
led to reinforcement of class, age, and gender distinctions.
What Song prime minister in the 1070s and 1080s attempted to introduce reforms based on the Legalist school of Confucianism?
Wang Anshi
What invading group caused the flight of the Song from northern China?
Jurchens
Period of political division that followed the Qin-Han Era?
Era of Division
The second Sui emperor favored what?
Confucian scholar gentry
Elite china were attracted to what kind of Buddhism?
Chan
What dynasty's unity could not be restored?
Liao
How does foot binding diminished the independence of Chinese women?
foot binding sufficiently crippled women to effectively confine their mobility to the household
During the song dynasty the interest of Confucian intellectuals in nature was most apparent in their production of what?
landscape paintings
Song compared to Tang?
Song empire was smaller in territorial extent than tang empire
Urbanization of China during the Tang Song era?
chinese urbanization mushroomed during the tang song era with a higher proportion of the population living in cities than that found in any other civilization
Extent of tang empire?
Tang built an empire far larger than that of the early han, an empire whose boundaries in many directions extended beyond borders to modern china
Status of women in Tang Song era?
assertion of male dominance within the family and beyond was especially pronounced in the thinking of the neo-confucian philosophers