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U.S. History Mid-Term Study Guide
Terms in this set (84)
Southern states legislatures quickly passed "black codes", imposed voter qualifications and allowed the sharecropping system to thrive, ensuring that the standard of living did not improve for freed slaves. Black Codes were in reaction to the Civil Rights ACt of 1866, and they were passed to restrict opportunities for blacks. They outlawed everything from interracial marriage to loitering in public areas. The Black Codes in Mississippi were the worst. They stripped blacks on their right to serve on juries, and testify against whites, and outlawed their right to free speech. Other codes forced black children into unpaid apprenticeships that usually led to fieldwork. Some of the black codes forced blacks to sign contracts requiring them to work for meager wages, or to work on chain gangs in the fields.
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society of white supremacists formed in Tennessee in 1866 to terrorize blacks. The Klansmen wore white hoods to conceal their identities, harassed and beat blacks, carpetbaggers, and scalawags, and sometimes even conducted lynchings - mob killings of blacks usually by hanging. The Klan used these tactics to scare blacks away from the polls during elections and to punish those who did not obey their demands. In one extreme case, Klansmen murdered several hundred black voters in Louisiana in 1868. Congress passed the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 to try to stop the violence.
A government agency established by Congress in 1865 to distribute food, supplies, and confiscated land to former slaves. Although the bureau's worth proved questionable because of corruption within the organization and external pressure from southern whites (including President Andrew Johnson), it successfully established schools for blacks throughout the south.
A constitutional amendment, drafted by Radical Republicans in 1866 and ratified in 1868, that ensured that the rights given to blacks in the Civil Rights Act of 1866 could not be taken away. It granted full citizenship to all Americans regardless of race (except Native Americans who did not gain full citizenship until the twentieth century). The amendment consequently reversed the Supreme Court's Dred Scott vs. Sanford decision of 1857.
A nickname for northerners who moved to the South after the Civil War, named for their tendency to carry their possessions with them in large carpetbags. Though some carpetbaggers migrated to strike it rich, most did so to promote modernization, education, and civil rights for former slaves in the South. Some carpetbaggers had influential roles in the new Republican state legislatures, much to the dismay of white southerners.
Tenure of Office Act
A bill that Congress passed during Andrew Johnson's presidency that required Johnson to consult Congress before dismissing any congressionally appointed government official. when Johnson ignored Congress and fired Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, the Radical Republicans in the House impeached Johnson on the grounds that he had violated the Tenure of Office Act. Although Johnson technically did violate the act, the Radicals impeached him primarily out of revenge, angry that he had excluded Congress from the Reconstruction process. The Senate later acquitted Johnson, so he was not removed from office.
White Unionist Republicans in the South, who participated in efforts to modernize and transform the region after the Civil War. Though many scalawags had influential roles in the new state governments, southern whites deemed them as traitors.
A constitutional amendment, ratified in 1870, that gave all American men the right to vote, regardless of race or wealth. The amendment enfranchised blacks and poor landless whites who had never been able to vote. Radical Republicans required southern states to ratify the amendment in order to be readmitted into the Union. The amendment's ratification angered many women (suffragettes) who were fighting for a woman's right to vote.
Abraham Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction, under which secessionists states could be readmitted to the Union only after 10 percent of their voting population took a loyalty oath to the Union. Lincoln agreed to pardon most Confederates but made no provision for safeguarding the rights of former slaves. Many Radical Republicans believed his plan was too lenient.
Former governor and senator from Tennessee who became president after Abraham Lincoln's assassination. Lincoln chose Johnson as his running mate in 1864 election in order to persuade the conservative border states to remain in the Union. Johnson was not a friend to southern plantation owners or an advocate of freeing the slaves, he fought Congress over the passage of the 14th Amendment and the Civil Rights Bill of 1866. Johnson also believed that only he, not Congress, should be responsible for Reconstruction, recognizing new state governments according to the Ten-Percent Plan without Congress's consent. The House of Representatives impeached Johnson in 1868 for violating the Tenure of Office Act, but the Senate later acquitted him so he never had to leave office.
A 1864 bill that stipulated that southern states could reenter the Union only after 50 percent of their voters pledged allegiance to teh United States. Radical Republicans passed the bill in response to Abraham Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan, which they believed was too lenient. Lincoln ultimately pocket-vetoes the bill, so it did not come into effect. The Wade-Davis Billw as the first of many clashes between the White House and Congress for control over the Reconstruction process.
1867-76, also called radical reconstruction, it was the period from 1867 to 1877 when Radical Republicans controlled the House of Representatives and the Senate, advocating for civil liberties and enfranchisement for former slaves. The party, known for its harsh policies toward the secessionist South passed progressive legislation like the Civil Rights ACt of 1866, the First and Second Reconstruction ACts, the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871, the Civil Rights ACt of 1875, and the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.
The Tenure of Office Act required Andrew Johnson to get permission from Congress before firing members of his cabinet, so when Johnson fired Secretary of War Edwin Stanton in 1867 Congress impeached Johnson but did not remove him from office; the Senate acquitted him instead.
Waving the Bloody Shirt
This was a campaign tactic used by post-Civil War Republicans to remind northern voters that the Confederates were Democrats. The device was used to divert attention away from the competence of candidates and from serious issues. It was also used to appeal to black voters in the South.
Compromise of 1877
After the disputed Presidential Election of 1876, Congress declared Republican Rutherford B. Hayes the winner, but Republicans promised to withdraw remaining troops from Southern states & no longer attempt to reshape Southern states; marked the end of Reconstruction as Democrats regained control of the South.
1872; tarred Grant's presidency; Union Pacific Railroad insiders formed this construction company and then hired themselves at inflated prices to build the railroad line, earning dividends as high as 348 percent; distributed shares of its valuable stock to congressmen to prevent whistle-blowing; a newspaper expose and congressional investigation of the scandal led to the formal censure of two congressmen and the showed that the vice president had accepted payments from this company. Major scandal for Grant.
Election of 1876
Race for the presidency between Republican Rutherford B Hayes and Democrat Samuel J Tilden. The decision of the winner came down to congress but no one knew which house should vote because the Senate was Republican and the House of Reps was Democratic. Congress created a Special Electoral Commission consisting of 5 senators, 5 House Reps, and 5 justices from the Supreme court. Votes went 8-7 in favor of Hayes.
Jim Crow Laws
Any of the laws legalizing racial segregation of blacks and whites that were enacted in Southern states beginning in the 1880s and enforced through the 1950s.
(1831-1881) He was remembered as one of the four "lost presidents" after the civil war. He was elected to the Ohio Senate in 1859 as a Republican. During the secession crisis, he advocated coercing the seceding states back into the Union. As President, he strengthened Federal authority over the New York Customs House. Less than four months of taking office in 1881, he was assassinated. His assassination led to the Pendleton Civil Service Reform of 1883.
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons.
Plessy vs Ferguson
(1896) The Court ruled that segregation was not discriminatory (did not violate black civil rights under the Fourteenth Amendemnt) provide that blacks received accommodations equal to those of whites.
Ulysses S. Grant
(1869-1873) and (1873-1877) Under Grant, the 15th Amendment is added to the Constitution. Administrative inaction and political scandal involving members of his cabinet, including the Crédit Mobilier scandal and the Whiskey Ring conspiracy. He was more successful in foreign affairs, where he was aided by his secretary of state, Hamilton Fish. He supported amnesty for Confederate leaders and protection for the civil rights of former slaves.
The Revenue Act or Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894 slightly reduced the United States tariff rates from the numbers set in the 1890 McKinley tariff and imposed a 2% income tax. Supported by the Democrats, this attempt at tariff reform was important because it imposed the first peacetime income tax (2% on income over $4,000). The "Sugar Trust" in particular made changes that favored itself at the expense of the consumer. Restricted US sugar imports. The tariff led to an economic downturn in Cuba, and in turn helped to increase the anger of Cuban natives against colonial Spain. President Grover Cleveland, who had campaigned on lowering the tariff and supported Wilson's version of the bill, was devastated that his program had been ruined. He denounced the revised measure as a disgraceful product of "party perfidy and party dishonor," but still allowed it to become law without his signature, believing that it was better than nothing and was at the least an improvement over the McKinley tariff.
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west.
Knights of Labor
One of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century. Founded by seven Philadelphia tailors in 1869 and led by Uriah S. Stephens, its ideology may be described as producerist, demanding an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories. Leaderships under Powderly, successful with Southwest Railroad System, failed after Haymarket Riot.
During the Civil War the U.S. government had granted subsidies to large railroad companies like the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad to lay rail tracks throughout the North and West.
Standard Oil Company
John D. Rockefeller's comapny, formed in 1870, which came to symbolize the trusts and monopolies of the Gilded age. By 1877 it controlled 95% of the oil refineries in the U.S. It became a target for trust reformers, and in 1911 the Supreme Court ordered it to break up into several dozen smaller companies.
Interstate Commerce Commission
Former independent agency of the U.S. government, established in 1887; it was charged with regulating the economics and services of specified carriers engaged in transportation between states. Surface transportation under the it's jurisdiction included railroads, trucking companies, bus lines, freight forwarders, water carriers, oil pipelines, transportation brokers, and express agencies. After his election in 1904, Theodore Roosevelt demonstrated support of progressive reforms by strengthening this.
A wealthy Wall Street banker who saved teh nearly bankrupt federal government in 1895 by loaning the Treasury more than $60 million. Morgan later purchased Andrew Carnegie's steel company for nearly $400 million and used it to form the U.S. Steel Corporation in 1901.
Owner of an American Tobacco Company, which established a virtual monopoly over the processing of raw tobacco into marketable materials.
Scottish immigrant who built a steel empire in PIttsburgh through hard work and ruthless business tactics such as vertical integration. Carnegie hated organized labor and sent in 300 Pinkerton agents to end the 1892 Homestead Strike at one of his steel plants. He eventually sold his company to Wall STreet financier J.P. Morgan, who used it to form the U.S. Steel Corporation trust in 1901. Around the turn of the century, Carnegie became one of the nationa's first large-scale philanthropists by donating more than $300 million to charities, hospitals, libraries and universities.
John D. Rockefeller
Industrialist who founded the Standard Oil Company in 1870. An incredibly ruthless businessman, Rockefeller employed horizontal integration to make Standard Oil one of the nation's first monopolistic trusts.
Gospel of Wealth
A social doctrine espoused by many wealthy businessmen during the Gilded Age that justified the growing income gap between rich and poor by arguing that God blessed the industrious with riches.
Captains of Industry
Entrepreneurs like Carnegie, Rockefeller, and Morgan, who during the late 1800's and early 1900's, helped create the modern industrial economy. That grew huge profits and power from creating products or services needed to make the country an industrial giant.
National Labor Union
The first large-scale U.S union, founded in 1866 and meant to organize skilled and unskilled laborers, farmers and factory workers. Blacks and women were not allowed to join this union. Existed for only 6 years, when the Depression of 1873 hit, workers rights were put on hold since workers would take any wages.
An explosion in the middle of a labor strike in Chicago's Haymarket Square in 1886. Although investigators later concluded that anarchists had detonated the bomb, the American people quickly blamed the strikers. The bombing brought an end to the union group the Knights of Labor.
American Federation of Labor
During these turbulent years for America's labor unions, the American Federation of Labor quietly grew in power, coordinating efforts for several dozen independent labor unions. Samuel Gompers founded the union in 1886, seeking better wages, working conditions, shorter working days and creation of all-union workplaces for its members. Unlike the National Labor Union and the Knights of Labor, the AFL represented only skilled white male craftsmen in the cities. Despite this limitation, however, the AFL survived the Gilded Age and would become one of the most powerful labor unions in the new century.
In this, competitors of a certain product or service agree to raise prices collectively so they can receive huge profits.
(1813-1898) An English engineer who created the Bessemer procces, a process of producing steel, in which impurities are removed by forcing a blast of air through molten iron.
An amendment to the U. S. Constitution passes in 1868 that made all persons born or naturalized in the United States-including former slave-citizens of the country.
Supreme Court and labor
The Supreme Court sided with labor interests in its 1908 Muller v. Oregon ruling, which awarded some federal protection for female workers in factories. In 1905 in Lochner vs New York the Supreme Court said that New York could not set maximum hour laws because it was unconstitutional. This went against labor.
(late 1800s- early 1900s) large business mergers, these combos became problem because their size allowed them to inhibit competition & control the market for their products.
A business strategy, often used by Gilded Age tycoons, that attempts to insulate a company from competition by integrating every aspect of production into a single company, thus eliminating middlemen. Steel baron Andrew Carnegie, for example, owned coal and iron fields, railroads, shipping companies, and marketing interests that were involved in the transportation and sale of steel. By eliminating expensive middlemen, businessmen like CArnegie could secure more profit for themselves.
The practice of having executives or directors from one company serve on the Board of Directors of another company. J. P. Morgan introduced this practice to eliminate banking competition in the 1890s.
After defeating Native American forces the U.S. government tried to herd native populations onto reservations on the poorest land in the Dakotas, New Mexico and Oklahoma to make room for the increasing number of white settlers. Pressured by reformers who wanted to "acclimatize" Native Americans to white culture. Congress passed the Dawes Act which outlawed tribal ownership of land and forced 160 acre homesteads into the hands of individual Indians and their families with the promise of future citizenship. The goal was to assimilate Native Americans into white culture as quickly as possible. As it turned out, the Dawes Act succeeded only in stripping tribes of their land and failed to incorporate Native Americans into U.S. Society.
After the Civil War ended, several million Americans immigrated to the regions beyond eastern Kansas and Nebraska, enticed by cheap federal land that Congress offered in the Homestead Act of 1862. Under the act any individual settler paying a small filing fee could stake a claim to 160 acres of free land in the West, as long as his family "improved" the land by farming it and living on it.
A fraction within the Republican Party during the 1870's and 1880's that exploited the spoils system. The leader of the Stalwarts' rivalry with the Half-Breeds, another Republican faction during this time period, weakened the Republican Party significantly.
Frederick Jackson Turner
United States historian who stressed the role of the western frontier in American history (1861-1951)
The Populist Party arose primarily in response to the 1890 McKinley TAriff, a very high tariff that hurt farmer. The Farmers's Alliance merged with other liberal democrats to form the Populist Party. The Populists campaigned for shorter workdays, nationalization of public utilities, direct elections of senators, the recall and referendum, a one-term limit for presidents, and cheap paper money backed by silver. Although William Jennings Bryan's loss in the election of 1896 broke up the party, Populist ideals endured and later coalesced into the progressive movement.
In 1894 President Grover Cleveland made a decision to end the Pullman Strike in Chicago. When Pullman, a railroad car company, cut the employes wages by 30%, labor organizer Eugene V. Debs organized a massive strike. Over 150,000 Pullman workers refused to work. Pullman cars were destroyed. Train service was cut off from Chicago to California. President Cleveland sent federal troops to break up the strike and had them arrest its leader, Debs.
A faction within the Republican Party during the 1870's and 1880's that exploited the spoils system. The Half-Breeds led by congressman James G. Blaine of Maine, engaged in a rivalry with the Stalwarts that weakened the Republican Party and ultimately played a part in the assassination of President James A. Garfield.
Former Democratic Governor of New York and both the twenty-second and twenty-fourth U.S. president - the only U.S. president ever elected to two nonconsecutive terms. During his second term, Cleveland unsuccessfully battled the Depression of 1893, sent federal troops to break up teh Pullman Strike in 1894, and had to ask J.P. Morgan to loan the nearly bankrupt federal government more than $60 million in 1895. Cleveland's inability to end the depression helped give rise to the Populist movement in the mid-1890's.
The Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests.
The U.S.S. Maine was a U.S. Navy ship that exploded mysteriously in the harbor of Havana, Cuba in 1898. Although historians have since concluded that a boiler accident caused the ship to explode, yellow journalists published sensationalist stories about the incident that quickly led the American public to believe that agents from Spain had sabotaged the ship. The destruction of the Maine pushed the United States and Spain closer to the Spanish-Ameircan War.
Powerful Ohio Congressman and twenty-fift U.S. president. As a member of Congress, McKinley managed to pass the McKinley Tariff n 1890 which raised the protective tariff rates on foreign goods to an all-time high. In 1896, he ran for president on a pro-gold standard platform against Democrat William Jennings Bryan; McKinley's campaign manager, Mark Hanna, and wealthy backers ensured that McKinley won the presidency. He asked Congres to declare war against Spain in 1898 fearing that the Democrats would unseat him in the next presidential election. He signed the Gold Standard Act in 1900 and was reelected later that year, but an anarchist assassinated him in 1901 and Theodore Roosevelt his chosen V.P became president.
Congress passed the Teller Amendment to justify declaring war on Spain. The Teller Amendment promised Cuba independence once the Spaniards had been driven out.
Allowed the United States to intervene in Cuba and gave the United States control of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
26th President of the U.S. he took office after assassination of McKinley in 1901. Aggressive both at home and abroad. His domestic policies, collectively known as the Square Deal, sought to protect American consumers, regulate big business, conserve natural resources, and help organized labor. His Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine asserted American influence and power in Latin America. He ran against Taft in 1912, splitting the Republican Party (he ran on the Progressive Party, or Bull Moose Party, ticket).
One of the causes of the Spanish-American War (1898) - this was when newspaper publishers like Hearst and Pulitzer sensationalized news events (like the sinking of the Maine) to anger American public towards Spain.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
American Naval officer and historian. He is most famous for his book "The Influence of Sea Power on History" which defined Naval strategy. His philosophies had a major influence on the Navies of many nations resulting in a igniting of naval races between countries.
Spanish American War
1898 conflict between the united states and spain, in which the united states supported cubans' fight for indepedence. started because of yellow journalism (Hearsts NY and Pulitzer's NYW) and the explosion of U.S.S. maine
Battle of Santiago
Fought between Spain and the United States on July 3 1898, was the largest naval engagement of the Spanish-American War and resulted in the destruction of the Spanish Navy's Caribbean Squadron.
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic.
One of Roosevelt's first goals was to construct a canal through the narrow Central American isthmus and link the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. In Panama, Roosevelt struck a deal with rebels who were dissatisfied with Colombian rule. He offered them independence and American protection in exchange for land to build the canal. In 1903, rebels overtook the capital while U.S. Navy ships prevented Colombian troops from marching in Panama. Roosevelt recognized Panama's independence and sent Secretary of State John Hay to sign the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty which relinquished ownership of the canal lands to the U.S. Construction of the Canal began the following year and was completed in 1914.
Chinese outrage of their country being divided up prompted a new nationalistic movement called the Boxer Movement to spread throughout China. In 1900 the Boxer army invaded Beijing believing that they would be divinely protected from bullets. They took foreign diplomats hostage. Nearly 20,000 French, German, British, Russian, Japanese and American soldiers joined forces to rescue the diplomats and end the Boxer Rebellion. After the diplomats were rescued, Secretary of State Hay issued the Second Open Door Note to request that the other powers respect China's territory status.
Filipino General - helped US take Philipines during Spanish-American war - helped Philippines gain freedom from US., Emilio Aguinaldo was a Filipino leader who fought first against Spain and then against the United States. He was a leader in the fight for Filipino independence.
A treaty signed on November 18, 1903, by the United States and Panama, that established the Panama Canal Zone and the subsequent construction of the Panama Canal. It was named after its two primary negotiators, Phillipe Bunau-Varilla, the French diplomatic representative of Panama, and United States Secretary of State John Hay.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Open Door Policy
A policy, proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Even before the Philippines was annexed by the U.S. there existed tension between U.S. troops and Filippinos. The situation deteriorated and eventually we entered into a war with the Philippines. Emilio Aguinaldo helped Americans fight Spain only to turn on them once free. In 1901, Aguinaldo surrendered which greatly hurt the Filippino cause. The Philippines was not an independent nation until July 4, 1946.
Was the Secretary of State in 1899; dispatched the Open Door Notes to keep the countries that had spheres of influence in China from taking over China and closing the doors on trade between China and the U.S. Also a central figure in negotiating the Panama Canal.
America attained Hawaii by forcing the Hawaiian King to sign a constitution and reduced his power. The Queen Liliuokalani gave up her country because she didn't want to go to war with America. Hawaii became the 50th State
Writers published "the dirt" on corporate and social injustices in books and magazines. Muckrakers had a huge impact on public opinion and even on the president and Congress. Upton Sinclair's The Jungle was a graphic description of the meatpacking industry in 1906. It was the force that started the push for the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act of that same year. Other muckraking novels were How the Other Half LIves about the plight of the urban poor and The Shame of teh Cities that exposed big-business corruption.
The First United States Volunteer Calvary, a mixure of Ivy League athletes and western frontiermen, volunteered to fight in the Spanish-American War. Enlisted by Theodore Roosevelt, they won many battles in Florida and enlisted in the invasion army of Cuba.
Northern Securities Case
Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts.
Meat Inspection Act
1906 law required federal inspection of meat sold through interstate commerce and required the Agriculture Department to set standards of cleanliness in meatpacking plants
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportinity to succeed., Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic presidential nominee in 1896, gave "Cross of Gold" speech that supported Populist and free silver platform.
Bull Moose Party
The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party (or Bull Moose Party because he was "fit as a bull moose..."). His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before.
Anthracite Coal Strike
1902 United Mine Workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened to cause an energy crisis. Roosevelt had no authority in the matter, but summoned representatives of both sides to a White House meeting. The president proposed arbitration; the miners accepted the proposal, but the owners declined. Then Roosevelt angrily threatened to send in federal soldiers to take over the mines. After issuing this threat, he turned to J.P. Morgan and secured his services to act as a go-between with the mine operators.
Graduated Income Tax
A tax on personal income in which the tax rate increases as income increases; in other words, the tax rate is higher for higher income levels.
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
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