Language, beliefs, values, norms, and material objects that are passed from one generation to the next; a way of life.
Physical objects in one's culture.
People-group's way of thinking, ideas, and goals; abstract concepts of culture
People-group's ideal values, norms, and goals; what people believe is going on in their culture; based upon principals.
People-group's actual behavior, which often falls short of its cultural ideals; what is practiced.
belief that one's culture is superior than another; judgement of another culture based upon the standards of one's own.
Understanding and accepting another culture; respect for another culture's characteristics.
The dispersion of cultural characteristics to another culture.
Allows human experience to be goal-directed, cooperative, and cumulative; complex system of symbols; key to understanding culture.
Language shapes our thoughts and perceptions; our sense of reality is contingent upon the language one speaks.
Standards on which is desirable and undesirable; abstract standards of goodness.
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members.
Approval of following norms
Disapproval of following norms
Norms that are not strictly enforced; consist mostly of basic etiquette.
Norms that groups demand conformity because they reflect core values; if violated, it creates an emotional response.
group whose values and behaviors that distinguish its members from the general culture; however, it does share many values of the larger culture.
holds values that contradict to that of the dominant culture
Areas of tension, points of social change.
costs that are made in the past and cannot be recovered; this keeps you from quitting.
Cost of the next best alternative use of money, time, or resources when one choice is made rather than another; this allows one to quit.
sunk cost fallacy
people make decisions about a current situation based on what they have previously invested in the situation
unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting thoughts or beliefs; "I made it through the initiation phase of sorority/fraternity week . . . I must really like this sorority/fraternity."
Identified that names do not determine the outcome of one's life.
Decade that encouraged sociologists to accept the Conflict Perspective.
Year of Woodstock
Considered to be the "Summer of Love"
The district in San Francisco that became popular for hippie counter-culture
cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite
soap operas, rock music, radio shock jocks, and video games
The elected leader of the boys and the main protagonist. He is neither the smartest nor the strongest but has a kind of quiet charisma and good looks. He tries to keep the boys focused on domestic order and the rules of civilization but loses his authority and almost his life to Jack's seizure of power.
Ralph's "lieutenant." A whiny, intellectual boy, Piggy's inventiveness frequently leads to innovation, such as the makeshift sundial that the boys use to tell time. Piggy represents the scientific, rational side of civilization.
Partial acceptance of another culture's characteristics
Full acceptance of another culture's characteristics
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior
An example of when sunk costs get the best of the American political system
A term anthropologists and sociologists have used to examine aspects of the behavior and society of American people and identify the ethnocentric tendencies of the American people.
Former Harvard psychologist who experimented with psychoactive drugs (including LSD) and became a well-known advocate of their use as a way to open and expand the mind; encouraged his students to drop out and join the counterculture movement.
Name of a boy in South Africa that created quite the awkward situation during a dance performance at a Jewish private school
Conducted famous conformity experiment that required subjects to match lines.
obedience to authority; had participants administer what they believed were dangerous electrical shocks to other participants; wanted to see if Germans were an aberration or if all people were capable of committing evil actions
specific ideas that people hold to be true; considered to be either true or false.
culture of victimization
no one accepts responsibility in this culture; everyone blames someone else or some aspects of society for their faults and failures.
people influenced by their peers to adopt certain behaviors
Mostly perceived as a biological characteristic; however, its origins are mostly sociological rather than biological
A social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race; primarily passed down from generation to generation.