47 terms

Culture

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Terms in this set (...)

Culture
Language, beliefs, values, norms, and material objects that are passed from one generation to the next; a way of life.
Material culture
Physical objects in one's culture.
Non-material culture
People-group's way of thinking, ideas, and goals; abstract concepts of culture
Ideal Culture
People-group's ideal values, norms, and goals; what people believe is going on in their culture; based upon principals.
Real Culture
People-group's actual behavior, which often falls short of its cultural ideals; what is practiced.
Ethnocentrism
belief that one's culture is superior than another; judgement of another culture based upon the standards of one's own.
Cultural relativism
Understanding and accepting another culture; respect for another culture's characteristics.
Cultural diffusion
The dispersion of cultural characteristics to another culture.
Language
Allows human experience to be goal-directed, cooperative, and cumulative; complex system of symbols; key to understanding culture.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Language shapes our thoughts and perceptions; our sense of reality is contingent upon the language one speaks.
Values
Standards on which is desirable and undesirable; abstract standards of goodness.
Norms
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members.
Positive sanctions
Approval of following norms
Negative sanctions
Disapproval of following norms
Folkways
Norms that are not strictly enforced; consist mostly of basic etiquette.
Mores
Norms that groups demand conformity because they reflect core values; if violated, it creates an emotional response.
Subculture
group whose values and behaviors that distinguish its members from the general culture; however, it does share many values of the larger culture.
counterculture
holds values that contradict to that of the dominant culture
Value contradictions
Areas of tension, points of social change.
Sunk costs
costs that are made in the past and cannot be recovered; this keeps you from quitting.
Opportunity costs
Cost of the next best alternative use of money, time, or resources when one choice is made rather than another; this allows one to quit.
sunk cost fallacy
people make decisions about a current situation based on what they have previously invested in the situation
cognitive dissonance
unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting thoughts or beliefs; "I made it through the initiation phase of sorority/fraternity week . . . I must really like this sorority/fraternity."
Roland Fryer
Identified that names do not determine the outcome of one's life.
1960s
Decade that encouraged sociologists to accept the Conflict Perspective.
1969
Year of Woodstock
1967
Considered to be the "Summer of Love"
Haight-Ashbury
The district in San Francisco that became popular for hippie counter-culture
High culture
cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite
Low culture
soap operas, rock music, radio shock jocks, and video games
Ralph
The elected leader of the boys and the main protagonist. He is neither the smartest nor the strongest but has a kind of quiet charisma and good looks. He tries to keep the boys focused on domestic order and the rules of civilization but loses his authority and almost his life to Jack's seizure of power.
Piggy
Ralph's "lieutenant." A whiny, intellectual boy, Piggy's inventiveness frequently leads to innovation, such as the makeshift sundial that the boys use to tell time. Piggy represents the scientific, rational side of civilization.
Acculturation
Partial acceptance of another culture's characteristics
Assimilation
Full acceptance of another culture's characteristics
Conformity
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Social control
attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior
Vietnam War
An example of when sunk costs get the best of the American political system
Nacirema
A term anthropologists and sociologists have used to examine aspects of the behavior and society of American people and identify the ethnocentric tendencies of the American people.
Timothy Leary
Former Harvard psychologist who experimented with psychoactive drugs (including LSD) and became a well-known advocate of their use as a way to open and expand the mind; encouraged his students to drop out and join the counterculture movement.
Hitler
Name of a boy in South Africa that created quite the awkward situation during a dance performance at a Jewish private school
Solomon Asch
Conducted famous conformity experiment that required subjects to match lines.
Stanley Milgram
obedience to authority; had participants administer what they believed were dangerous electrical shocks to other participants; wanted to see if Germans were an aberration or if all people were capable of committing evil actions
Beliefs
specific ideas that people hold to be true; considered to be either true or false.
culture of victimization
no one accepts responsibility in this culture; everyone blames someone else or some aspects of society for their faults and failures.
Herd mentality
people influenced by their peers to adopt certain behaviors
Race
Mostly perceived as a biological characteristic; however, its origins are mostly sociological rather than biological
Ethnicity
A social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race; primarily passed down from generation to generation.