Chapter 14 Learning Curves

Heterozygotes for the defective enzyme _______ alkaptonuria, which means that the trait is _______.

A. develop; dominant
B. develop; recessive
C. do not develop; dominant
D. do not develop; recessive
E. do not develop; codominant
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Initiation of translation of an mRNA has begun, then suddenly ceases after about 20 _______ amino acids are detected at the N terminus. When the entire complex—mRNA and ribosome—binds to a specific signal recognition particle on the RER, translation resumes.hydrophobicWhat is a major reason that the bread mold Neurospora is particularly useful in genetic studies? A. Alleles can be examined in their heterozygous state. B. Any given locus has only two alleles. C. All alleles are expressed because Neurospora is haploid. D. All alleles are expressed because Neurospora is diploid. E. Genes cannot interact.C. All alleles are expressed because Neurospora is haploid.The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA is transcribed into _______, which is translated into proteinRNAThe template in transcription is a(n) A. ribonucleoside triphosphate. B. strand of RNA. C. strand of DNA. D. enzyme. E. primer.C. strand of DNA.When the introns are removed from pre-mRNA, the exons must be _______ together to form mRNA.splicedThe anticodon is A. added to the tRNA by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. B. always present on a tRNA and is located at the 3′ end. C. always present on a tRNA and is located in the middle of it. D. added to the tRNA by enzymes not yet discovered. E. always present on a tRNA and is located at the 5′ end.C. always present on a tRNA and is located in the middle of it.People with alkaptonuria have an inactive form of A. biotin. B. tyrosine. C. biotin oxidase. D. homogentisic acid. E. homogentisic acid oxidase.E. homogentisic acid oxidase.The translation of mRNA occurs in the _______ of the eukaryotic cell.cytoplasmAn mRNA molecule has 540 codons. How many nucleotides does it have in the coding region? A. 180 B. 270 C. 540 D. 1,080 E. 1,620E. 1,620The language of mRNA (nucleotide codons) is translated into the language of protein (amino acids) through the actions of _______.tRNAWhich type of molecule transfers information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the eukaryotic cell? A. DNA B. Protein C. mRNA D. tRNA E. LipidC. mRNAThere are _______ different codons in the genetic code, and each codon is _______ nucleotides long. A. 16; 2 B. 16; 3 C. 16; 4 D. 64; 2 E. 64; 3E. 64; 3Gene X encodes an enzyme subunit. A researcher is studying an allele of gene X that does not produce a protein product. Experiments show that the pre-mRNA transcript undergoes RNA processing and is successfully transported out of the nucleus. However, in the cytoplasm, the mRNAs accumulate without binding to ribosomes. These results suggest a problem with the addition of the _______ to the pre-mRNA.5' capInclusion-cell (I-cell) disease is a failure of A. proteolysis. B. glycosylation. C. phosphorylation. D. translation. E. the fidelity function.B. glycosylation.The genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus is RNA. In HIV-infected human cells, the RNA can be copied into a DNA molecule by a process known as A. transcription. B. the central dogma. C. translation. D. reverse transcription. E. reverse translation.D. reverse transcription.A stop codon causes A. the next codon to be transcribed. B. the end of processing of a polypeptide. C. transcription to come to a halt. D. translation to cease. E. the release of a transcription factor from the promoter.D. translation to cease.You are least likely to see introns in a(n) A. bacterial genome. B. mammalian genome. C. insect genome. D. yeast genome. E. plant genome.A. bacterial genome.Benzer and his group modified the amino acid part of a charged tRNA molecule. This experiment demonstrated A. the existence of the wobble phenomenon. B. that the wobble phenomenon is an artifact. C. that the genetic code is (nearly) universal. D. that the protein synthesis machinery recognized the amino acid attached to the tRNA molecule. E. that the protein synthesis machinery recognized the anticodon of the charged tRNA molecule.E. that the protein synthesis machinery recognized the anticodon of the charged tRNA molecule.After processing at the RER, a protein inappropriately moves back into the RER through the membrane because its signal sequence is still attached. This is a failure of A. glycosylation. B. proteolysis. C. phosphorylation. D. translation. E. the fidelity function.B. proteolysis.Normally, Neurospora can synthesize all 20 amino acids specified by the genetic code. A certain strain of this mold cannot grow in minimal nutritional medium but grows only when the amino acid leucine is added to the medium. This strain A. is dependent on leucine for energy. B. has a mutation affecting the biochemical pathway leading to synthesis of leucine. C. has a mutation affecting a biochemical pathway leading to synthesis of carbohydrates. D. has a mutation affecting the biochemical pathways leading to synthesis of 19 of the 20 amino acids. E. has a mutation affecting the biochemical pathways leading to synthesis of all 20 amino acids.B. has a mutation affecting the biochemical pathway leading to synthesis of leucine.By convention, DNA sequences are written starting with the _______ end of the _______ strand. A. 3′; coding B. 3′; template C. 5′; coding D. 5′; messenger E. 5′; templateC. 5′; codingThe modified GTP cap on eukaryotic mRNAs is found A. in the poly A tail. B. at the 3′ end. C. at the 5′ end. D. in the consensus sequence. E. in snRNA.C. at the 5′ end.Reverse transcription is the opposite of transcription with respect to A. the flow of information. B. the modifications made during RNA processing. C. the role tRNA plays in the processes. D. which DNA strand is copied. E. energetics (the creation/destruction of phosphate bonds).A. the flow of information.The three codons in the genetic code that do not specify amino acids are called A. start codons. B. stop codons. C. initiator codons. D. missense codons. E. promoters.B. stop codons.What type of molecule "decodes" the information present in mRNA? A. tRNA B. Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles C. mRNA itself D. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases E. rRNAA. tRNAWhich statement about nucleic acid hybridization is false? A. It involves the use of a probe to form a double-stranded molecule. B. It originally revealed the existence of introns. C. It requires that the original DNA molecule be denatured. D. It can only be used for comparing prokaryotic mRNA and DNA. E. It is used to study the relationship between eukaryotic genes and their transcripts.D. It can only be used for comparing prokaryotic mRNA and DNA.In RNA viruses, single-stranded RNA replicates by A. the process of translation. B. making an RNA strand that is complementary to the original RNA strand. C. the process of reverse transcription. D. the process of transcription. E. using an adapter molecule.B. making an RNA strand that is complementary to the original RNA strand.Wild-type strains of a yeast species can grow on a medium of glucose, minerals, and niacin. Many strains that have been subjected to X rays cannot grow on this medium (call it medium Q) unless other substances are added to it. Medium Q is thus a(n) _______ medium. A. wild-type B. model C. minimal D. enzymatic E. mutagenicC. minimalWhich molecule provides evidence that not all genes code for proteins? A. DNA polymerase B. Arginase C. tRNA D. Arginine E. RNAseC. tRNAThe disease called branched-chain ketoaciduria is commonly known as maple syrup urine disease, as the urine of a person with the condition has a smell similar to that of maple syrup. Because the disease is rare and most often appears in children whose parents are first cousins, one can conclude that the disease is inherited as an autosomal _______ phenotype.recessiveIf a strain of Neurospora is unable to grow on minimal medium but can grow when substance A is added to minimal medium, then A. substance A must be a mutagen. B. the strain lacks the enzyme or enzymes needed to break down substance A. C. the strain lacks the enzyme or enzymes needed to synthesize substance A. D. substance A must be an enzyme. E. the strain is wild type.C. the strain lacks the enzyme or enzymes needed to synthesize substance A.Which type of molecule transfers information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the eukaryotic cell? A. Lipid B. tRNA C. mRNA D. DNA E. ProteinC. mRNADuring transcription, by what molecule(s) is the DNA unwound? A. RNA helicase B. RNA polymerase C. Initiation factor(s) D. Transcription factor(s) E. DNA itselfB. RNA polymerasePromoters are made of A. proteins. B. nucleic acids. C. carbohydrates. D. amino acids. E. lipids.B. nucleic acids.In what way does RNA polymerase differ from DNA polymerase? A. RNA polymerase does not require a primer, unlike DNA polymerase. B. DNA polymerase does not require a primer, unlike RNA polymerase. C. DNA polymerase is processive, RNA polymerase is not. D. RNA polymerase is processive, DNA polymerase is not. E. RNA polymerase and DNA polymerase differ only in the type of nucleic acid polymer they synthesize.A. RNA polymerase does not require a primer, unlike DNA polymerase.Suppose that the genetic code involved five nucleotides per codon but that there were only two different types of nucleotides. How many different codons would be possible? A. 16 B. 25 C. 32 D. 64 E. 125C. 32Garrod postulated that alkaptonuria and other inborn errors of metabolism were due to Please choose the correct answer from the following choices, and then select the submit answer button. A. a defect in RNA corresponding to a defect in a single gene. B. defects in several enzymes that correspond to defects in several genes. C. defects in several enzymes that correspond to a defect in a single gene. D. a defect in a single enzyme that corresponds to a defect in a single gene. E. a defect in a single enzyme that corresponds to defects in several genes.The current genetic code evolved A. after the split of multicellular animals and multicellular plants but before the common ancestor of chordates. B. before the common ancestor of all extant life. C. after the common ancestor of chordates. D. after the common ancestor of all extant life but before eukaryotes split from the other domains of life. E. after eukaryotes split from other domains of life but before the split of multicellular animals and multicellular plants.B. before the common ancestor of all extant life.