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Unit 5 Behavioral and Social Cognitive Learning Theories Lecture
Terms in this set (49)
the process of acquiring relatively permanent change in understanding, knowledge, information, ability and skill through experience
Three fundamental components to learning
Could we learn through osmosis? Why or why not?
Because there is no experience. In other words a person simply putting a book on there head and saying i'm learning is not really learning because there is NO experience.
Bill studies for his test. He stays up all night memorizing terms and definitions and aces the test. Can we assume learning has occurred? Why or why not?
because there is no evidence of permanence. You never want to mistake grades for knowledge.
If what we experience is ultimately forgotten then we have only learned to forget (or retain information temporaily)
Ex: You are a teacher and you see one of your former students you taught in the past. You walk over and congratulate them on a test that was done one year or later. The student acts like he doesn't remember.
Refer to the incident about Bill. What are the issues with his learning?
What if Bill does retain the information - what do we really know about his learning?
-He has learned certain facts but, may not be able to make sense of those facts and apply them to make them meaningful to him.
What these questions are addressing is that there are a variety of qualitative distinctions concerning learning.
Qualitative distinctions concerning learning include:
The understanding of Blooms Taxonomy of Learning
Blooms taxonomy of learning
knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation
remembering or recognizing something without necessarily understanding, using, or changing it.
understanding the material being communicated without necessarily relating it to anything else.
using a general concept to solve a particular problem.
breaking something down into its parts
creating something new by combining different ideas.
judging the value of materials or methods as they might be applied in a particular situation.
What are things we can do to improve bills issues or any students issues?
Be aware of Blooms taxonomy of learning.
As facilitators of learning, we have to be able to determine if something is learned and we also have to make sense what kinds of learning need to occur.
In so doing we are more prepared to prepare for how we intend to make it happen.
Are we always aware when learning occurs?
Learning is not always the result of overt processes. Often learning occurs covertly or incidentally.
In order to increase the likelihood of learning, those responsible for facilitating it must also capitalize upon that which has been learned covertly/incidentally.
behavioral learning theories
Social cognitive learning theories
cognitive learning theories
Behavioral Learning Theories
Explanations of learning that focus on external events as the cause of changes in observable behaviors.
Behavioral learning theories address three forms of learning. What are they?
social cognitive theory
Not one of these are used but, a VARIETY of these are used.
A person becomes upset before class is an example of which of the following behavioral learning theories?
Someone playing a slot machine is an example of which of the following behavioral learning theories?
Operant conditioning or social cognitive theory
A class is very attentive and cooperative in the hopes of getting out early is an example of which of the following behavioral learning theories
Wearing a leather tie to the dance because you saw Michael J. Fox wearing one on celebrity "Wheel of Fortune" is an example of which of the following behavioral learning theories
Social Cognitive theory
Provides the foundation for behavioral learning theories.
-The principle considered by all behavioral learning theories.
-Contiguous - being in actual contact; connected.
the simple pairing or association of stimuli and responses, so that if they occur together often enough, experiencing one causes the other.
Involves stimuli and responses
learning occurs when a previously unpaired stimulus and response become contiguous with each other.
Contiguity dictates that learning is dependent on the salience of a pairing or repeated pairings.
are all the sights, sounds, smells, and other influences the senses receive from the environment.
are the behaviors that result from the association.
Association of automatic responses with new stimuli.
Sometimes called respondent learning because the learner is responding to the environment.
Discovered by Ivan Pavlov and further addressed by John Watson.
Key variables involved in Classical conditioning
studied the behavior of babies and there emotions.
Conducted the little Albert experiment
1. The baby is presented with a nornal piece of paper, sounds-banging drum which made him cry, rat- the baby freared this
2. Unconditioned stimulus- loud noise
UR- Alberts reactions
Nu- Rats, animals
conditioned- fear of the furry objects
CR- Crying, upset
Other variables associated with classical conditioning
conceived by BF Skinner
applies reinforcement principles to condition or shape operant behaviors (voluntary responses or behaviors).
-Used reinforcement as an active means for shaping behaviors.
-Defined reinforcers in terms of situational effects.
Depends on consequences
Categories of reinforcers/punishers used in operant conditioning
Social -commentary, feedback
Activity - action
Tangible - object
responding to similar stimuli
responding to distinct stimuli
reinforcing successive approximations
schedules of reinforcement in Operant conditioning
-interval- refers to time
fixed or variable
-Ratio- refers to behavioral instances
fixed or variable
Potency in operant conditioning
reinforcer's ability to strengthen behavior.
-impacted by the learner, source, or frequency
saitation in operant conditioning
when a reinforcer loses its potency
Extinction (operant conditioning)
association is gone
cues in operant conditioning
means for prompting behaviors
How might operant conditioning be used in the classroom?
Applied Behavioral Analysis
-Identify target behaviors
-Establish a baseline
-Choose reinforcers and/or punishers
-Measure changes in the target behaviors
-Change reinforcement schedule
Social cognitive theory
A hybrid form of behaviorism conceived by Albert Bandura.
Similarities of the social cognitive theory to the behavior learning theories
Agrees that experience is fundamental to learning.
Addresses the role of reinforcement and punishment in explaining behavior.
Differences of the social cognitive theory to the behavior learning theories
Views cognition as important to learning. Because of the role of internal processes, change is not always evident. Learning is not always the sole product of external conditions
The interactions among behavior, the environment, and personal factors (e.g., reciprocal determinism).
The way reinforcement and punishment are interpreted.
The way reinforcement and punishment are interpreted
Reinforcers and punishers are not direct causes of behaviors.
-Instead, they cause expectations.
People are aware of what behaviors are reinforced. Therefore, they have mentally interpreted the situation and expect that acting a specific way will result in a consequence.
Expectation based learning under social cogntive theory
learning by doing and making choices and decisions based on experience.
-Evaluation of others
-Evaluation of our success
-Valuing of consequences
learning by observing and making choices based on experience.
-Admired or high status model
-Need to know
Observe a setting where people are sitting down at a festival. A guy is dancing. Another guy comes in and does it with him. Now there are multiple people what is this an example of and explain why?
This is about enactive and vicarious learning. If others noticed that he was engaging in this behavior then everyone did.
Factors to consider in vicarious learning
Factors such as maturation, status of the model, expectations, and self-efficacy influence whether vicarious learning occurs.
Processes such as attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation are also involved.
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
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