AP Euro Chapter 21 ID's

Terms in this set (48)

The Concert of Europe was made to maintain the new status quo the European powers had constructed. This grew out of the reaffirmation of the Quadruple Alliance in November 1815. The four countries renewed their commitment against any attempted restoration of Bonapartist power and agreed to meet periodically in conferences to discuss their common interests and examine measures that "will be judged most salutary for the repose and prosperity of peoples, and for the maintenance of peace in Europe." The first congress held in 1818 at Aix-la-Chapelle was the most congenial of the four between 1818 and 1822. The four great powers agreed to withdraw their army of occupation from France and to add France to the Concert of Europe, which transformed the Quadruple Alliance into a quintuple alliance. The following congress was less pleasant. Held at Troppau, the second congress was called in 1820 to deal with the outbreak of revolution in Spain and Italy. The revolt in Spain was directed against Ferdinand VII, the Bourbon king who had been restored to the throne in 1814. In southern Italy, the restoration of another Bourbon, Ferdinand I, as king of Naples and Sicily sparked a rebellion that soon spread to Piedmont in northern Italy. The third meeting, held at Laibach in January of 1821, was held when Austria, Prussia, and Russia met to authorize the sending of Austrian troops to Naples to restore Ferdinand I to the throne, and then move north to suppress the rebels in Piedmont. The fourth conference was held at Verona in October of 1822, where Austria, Prussia, and Russia authorized France to invade Spain to crush the reovlt against Ferdinand VII. In the spring of 1823, the French restored the Bourbon monarch. However, the Concert of Europe had broken down when the Birtish rejected Metternich's principle of intervention and although the British had failed to thwart allied intervention in Spain and Italy, they were successful in keeping the Continental powers from interfering with the revolutions in Latin America. Importance: The Concert of Europe embodied the cooperation of Europe's great powers. Through the Concert of Europe, they attempted to ensure the durability of the new conservative order by intervening to uphold conservative governments.
By the American Revolution, Latin America remained under ownership of the Spanish and the Portuguese during the 18th century. By the end of the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas and new political ideals stemming from the revolution in North America were beginning to influence the creole elites (descendants of Europeans who became permanent inhabitants of Latin America). At the beginning of the 19th century, Napoleon's continental wars provided the creoles an opportunity for change. A series of revolts between 1807 and 1824 enabled most Latin American countries to become independent. Simon Bolivar, a son of a creole from Venezuela, has been known as the George Washington of Latin America. While in Rome to witness the coronation of Napoleon as king of Italy in 1805, he committed himself to free his people from Spanish control. Apon his arrival back in South America, Bolivar began to lead the bitter struggle for independence in Venezuela and other parts of northern South America. He definitevly defeated Spanish forces in Venezuela in 1821, although he was known as the "liberator" of Venezuela in 1813 by the people. He went on to liberate Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Jose de San Martin, a son of a creole from Argentina, concentrated his efforts on the southern part of the continent. San Martin went to Spain and pursued a military career, and in 1811, after serving twenty-two years, he learned of the libeartion movement in his native Argentina, abandoned his miliatry career in Spain, and returned to his homeland in March of 1812. Argentina had been freed from the Spanish control, but he believed all Spainards must leave South America if any nation was to remain free. In January 1817, he led his forces over the Andes Mountains, where two-thirds of his pack mules and horses died. Many of the soldiers suffered from lack of oxygen and severe cold while crossing mountain passes more than 2 miles above sea level. The arrival of the troops in Chile surprised the Spaniards, who were going to the Battle of Chacabuco on February 12, 1817. San Martin welcomed Bolivar and his forces when he moved on to Lima, Peru, the center of Spanish authority in 1821. San Martin, however, left for Europe, where he remained outside of Paris until his death in 1850. Bolivar wanted to crush the last large Spanish army at Ayacucho on December 9, 1824. By then, Peru, Uruguay, Paraguay, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile were all free states. In 1823, the Central American states became independent and in 1838-1839 divided into five republics: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Importance: The Latin American colonies took advantage of Spain's weakness during the Napoleonic wars to fight for independence, which started with Argentina in 1810 and spread throughout the region over the next decade with the help of leaders like Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin.
Louis XVIII was the person who restored the Bourbon family in France. He realized he needed to accept some of the changes brough about by the French Revolution and Napoleonic eras, and accepted Napoleon's Civil Code. A two-house (bicameral) legislature was established, which sonsted of the Chamber of Peers, chosen by the king, and the Chamber of Deputies, chosen by an electoragte restricted to slightly fewer than 100,000 wealthy people. However, his grudging moderation was opposed by liberals eager to extend the revolutionary reforms and by a group of ultraroyalists. The ultraroyalists criticized the king's willingness to compromise and retain so many features of the Napoleonic era, wanted to return a monarc which was dominated by the privileged landed aristocracy and to restore the Catholic Church to its former power. The initiative passed to the ultraroyalists in 1824 when Louis XVIII died and was succeeded by his brother, the count of Artois, who became Charles X. In 1825, Charles granted an indemnity to aristocrats whose lands had been taken away during the Revolution. The king pursued a religious policy which encouraged the Catholic Church to reestablish control over the French educational system. Liberal nespapers fed public outrage, which then forced the king to compromise in 1827 and accept the princple of ministerial responsibilty. This emant that the ministers of the king were responisble to the legislature. However, in 1829, he violated his commitment. A protest by the dupties led the king to dissolve the legislature in 1830 and call for new elections. Importance: Louis XVIII and Charles X brought in new ideas into French government, but ultimately led to France being on the brink of another revolution.
Serjents were new police in France, who, in march of 1829, became visible on Parisian streets. Dressed in blue uniforms to distingiush them from citizens, the serjents were lightly armed with a white cane during the day and a saber at night. This udnerscored the fact that they were a civilian, not a military body. In the beginning, there weren't a lot. In August of 1829, there were only 85; in 1850, there were 500; by the end of the century, there were 4,000. The British relied on a system of unpaid constables, who were recruited by local authorities, rather than a pro police force. Many times, however, they were unable to keep order, prevent crime, or apprehend criminals, since such jobs could be dangerous and involve incidents. After these failures, between September 1829 and May 1830, 3,000 uniformed police officers appeared on the streets of London. They were known as the bobbies after Sir Robert Peel, who had introduced the legislation that created the force. The bobbies' primary goal was to prevent crime, but the municipal authorities soon found that the police were also useful for imposing order on working-class urban inhabitants. On Sundays, they were called to clean up after Saturday nigth's drinking bouts. However, as demands for better pay and treatment led to improved working conditions, British police began to develop a sense of professionalism. After the 1848 revolutions in Germany, a state-financed police system called the Schutzmannschaft was established for the city of Berlin. It was modeled after the London police, and began as a civilan body, but by 1851, it had become organized more along military lines and was used for political purposes. Its military nature was reinforced by the force's weaponry, which included swords, pistols, and brass knuckles. Importance: Serjents, "bobbies," and the Schutzmannschaft were all forms of police systems.
Friedrich was a German painter, whose early life experiences left him with a lifelong preoccupation with God and nature. Friedrich painted landscapes with an interest that transcended the mere presentation of natural details. He portrayed mountains surrounded by mist, gnarled trees bathed in moonlights, and the stark ruins of monasteries surrounded by withered trees. All of his works conveyed a feeling of mystery and mysticism. For him, nautre was a manifestation of divine life, as seen in Man and Woman Gazing at the Moon, and the artistic process depnded on one's inner vision. Turner was an English artist who, like Friedrich, dwelt on nature and made landscape his major subject. Turner produced more than 20,000 paintings, drawings, and watercolors. His concern with nature transformed itself into innumerable landscapes and seascapes, sunrises and sunsets. He didn't idealize nature or reproduce it wihth realistic accuracy, however. Rather, he wanted to convey its moods by using an interplay of light and color to suggest natural effects. He anticipated the Impressionist painters of the second half of the nineteenth century, as he allowed the objects in his paintings to blend together and into their surroundings. Delacroix was the most famous French Romantic artist. He was interested in exotic things and had a passion for color. Both of these characteristics are evident in The Death of Sardanapalus. This particular painting stands out for its use of light and its patches of interrelated color, as this portrayal of the world of the last Assyrian king was criticized at the time for its garishness. Delacroix rejoiced in combining theatricality and movement with a daring use of color. Importance: Friedrich, Turner, and Delacroix were three Romantic artists, who abandoned classical restraint for warmth, emotion, and movement. Through these three painters, it is obvious that Romanticism influenced the visual arts.
Beethoven singlehandedly transformed the art of music, since he wanted to communicate his cherished beliefs. During his first major period of composing between 1792 and 1800, his work was largely within the classical framework of the 18th century, and the influences of Haydn and Mozart are apparent. However, with the composition of the Third Symphony in 1804 (a.k.a. the Eroica), Beethoven broke thru the elements of Romanticism in his use of uncontrolled rhythms to create dramatic struggle and uplifted resolutions. Beethoven went on to write a plethora of works, but in the midst of this, he was more and more bothered by his growing deafness. One of the most moving pieces of music of all time, the chorale finale of his Ninth Symphony, was composed when Beethoven was totally deaf. Beethoven served as a bridge from the classical era to Romaticism, and after him came a number of musical geniuses who composed in the Romantic style. Berlioz was one of the most outstanding. He rebelled against his father's wish of him to study medicine, and believed he would be "no doctor or apothecary but a great composer." Berlijoz managed to fulfill his own expectations, and became famous in Germany, Russia, and Britain, although the originality of his work kept him from receiving much recognition in his native country of France. Berlioz was one of the founders of program music, which was an effort to use the moods and sound effects of instrumental music to depict the actions and emotions within a story, an event, or a personal experience. This development is shown in Berlioz's most famous piece, the first complete program symphony, the Symphone Fantastique. In this, Berlioz used music to bring about the passionate emotions of a tortured love affair, including a fifth movement in whihc he musically creates an opium-induced nightmare of a witches' gathering. Importance: Beethoven served as a bridge from the classical era to Romaticism, and after him came a number of musical geniuses who composed in the Romantic style. Berlioz was one of the most outstanding.