Klemens von Metternich claimed to be guided by the principle of legitimacy. He thought it was necessary to restore the legitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional institutions in order to reestablish peace and stability in Europe. This had already been done in Frnace and Spain with the Bourbons coming back into power, as well as in a lot of Italian states where rulers had returned to their thrones. However, every where else this happened, the principle of legitimacy was ignored and overshadowed by more practical considerations of power. The congress's treatment of Poland, to which Prussia, Russia, and Austria all laid claim, illustrates this approach. Prussia and Austria were allowed to keep some Polish territory, so a new, nomially independent Polish kingdom was established, with the Romanov dynasty of Russia as its hereditary monarchs. Importance: The principle of legitimacy created stronger countries through reestablishing legitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional institutions. The Concert of Europe was made to maintain the new status quo the European powers had constructed. This grew out of the reaffirmation of the Quadruple Alliance in November 1815. The four countries renewed their commitment against any attempted restoration of Bonapartist power and agreed to meet periodically in conferences to discuss their common interests and examine measures that "will be judged most salutary for the repose and prosperity of peoples, and for the maintenance of peace in Europe." The first congress held in 1818 at Aix-la-Chapelle was the most congenial of the four between 1818 and 1822. The four great powers agreed to withdraw their army of occupation from France and to add France to the Concert of Europe, which transformed the Quadruple Alliance into a quintuple alliance. The following congress was less pleasant. Held at Troppau, the second congress was called in 1820 to deal with the outbreak of revolution in Spain and Italy. The revolt in Spain was directed against Ferdinand VII, the Bourbon king who had been restored to the throne in 1814. In southern Italy, the restoration of another Bourbon, Ferdinand I, as king of Naples and Sicily sparked a rebellion that soon spread to Piedmont in northern Italy. The third meeting, held at Laibach in January of 1821, was held when Austria, Prussia, and Russia met to authorize the sending of Austrian troops to Naples to restore Ferdinand I to the throne, and then move north to suppress the rebels in Piedmont. The fourth conference was held at Verona in October of 1822, where Austria, Prussia, and Russia authorized France to invade Spain to crush the reovlt against Ferdinand VII. In the spring of 1823, the French restored the Bourbon monarch. However, the Concert of Europe had broken down when the Birtish rejected Metternich's principle of intervention and although the British had failed to thwart allied intervention in Spain and Italy, they were successful in keeping the Continental powers from interfering with the revolutions in Latin America. Importance: The Concert of Europe embodied the cooperation of Europe's great powers. Through the Concert of Europe, they attempted to ensure the durability of the new conservative order by intervening to uphold conservative governments. By the American Revolution, Latin America remained under ownership of the Spanish and the Portuguese during the 18th century. By the end of the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas and new political ideals stemming from the revolution in North America were beginning to influence the creole elites (descendants of Europeans who became permanent inhabitants of Latin America). At the beginning of the 19th century, Napoleon's continental wars provided the creoles an opportunity for change. A series of revolts between 1807 and 1824 enabled most Latin American countries to become independent. Simon Bolivar, a son of a creole from Venezuela, has been known as the George Washington of Latin America. While in Rome to witness the coronation of Napoleon as king of Italy in 1805, he committed himself to free his people from Spanish control. Apon his arrival back in South America, Bolivar began to lead the bitter struggle for independence in Venezuela and other parts of northern South America. He definitevly defeated Spanish forces in Venezuela in 1821, although he was known as the "liberator" of Venezuela in 1813 by the people. He went on to liberate Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Jose de San Martin, a son of a creole from Argentina, concentrated his efforts on the southern part of the continent. San Martin went to Spain and pursued a military career, and in 1811, after serving twenty-two years, he learned of the libeartion movement in his native Argentina, abandoned his miliatry career in Spain, and returned to his homeland in March of 1812. Argentina had been freed from the Spanish control, but he believed all Spainards must leave South America if any nation was to remain free. In January 1817, he led his forces over the Andes Mountains, where two-thirds of his pack mules and horses died. Many of the soldiers suffered from lack of oxygen and severe cold while crossing mountain passes more than 2 miles above sea level. The arrival of the troops in Chile surprised the Spaniards, who were going to the Battle of Chacabuco on February 12, 1817. San Martin welcomed Bolivar and his forces when he moved on to Lima, Peru, the center of Spanish authority in 1821. San Martin, however, left for Europe, where he remained outside of Paris until his death in 1850. Bolivar wanted to crush the last large Spanish army at Ayacucho on December 9, 1824. By then, Peru, Uruguay, Paraguay, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile were all free states. In 1823, the Central American states became independent and in 1838-1839 divided into five republics: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Importance: The Latin American colonies took advantage of Spain's weakness during the Napoleonic wars to fight for independence, which started with Argentina in 1810 and spread throughout the region over the next decade with the help of leaders like Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin. In 1821, the Greeks revolted against their masters, Ottoman Turks. The Greeks had been subject to Muslim control for 400 years, but had been allowed to use their own language and believe in their own Greek Orthodox faith. A revival of Greek national sentiment in the early 19th century added to the desire for liberation "from the terrible yoke of Turkish oppression." Soon, the Greek revolt changed into a noble cause by an outpouring of European sentiment for the Greeks' struggle. In 1827, a combined British and French fleet went to Greece and defeated a large Ottoman armada. In 1828, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire and invaded its European provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia. By the Treay of Adrianople in 1829, which ended the Russian-Turkish war, the Russians received a protectorate over the two provinces. This treaty also made the Ottoman Empire agree to allow Russia, France, and Britain to decide the fate of Greece. In 1830, Greece became an independent kingdom, as decided by the three powers, and two years later, a new royal dynasty was established. The revolution was successful only because the great powers themselves supported it. Until 1830, the Greek revolt was only successful one in Europe; the conservative domination was still largely intact. Importance: The Greek Revolt led to Greece becoming an independent kingdom in 1830, andn then, two years later, a new royal dynasty was established. Louis XVIII was the person who restored the Bourbon family in France. He realized he needed to accept some of the changes brough about by the French Revolution and Napoleonic eras, and accepted Napoleon's Civil Code. A two-house (bicameral) legislature was established, which sonsted of the Chamber of Peers, chosen by the king, and the Chamber of Deputies, chosen by an electoragte restricted to slightly fewer than 100,000 wealthy people. However, his grudging moderation was opposed by liberals eager to extend the revolutionary reforms and by a group of ultraroyalists. The ultraroyalists criticized the king's willingness to compromise and retain so many features of the Napoleonic era, wanted to return a monarc which was dominated by the privileged landed aristocracy and to restore the Catholic Church to its former power. The initiative passed to the ultraroyalists in 1824 when Louis XVIII died and was succeeded by his brother, the count of Artois, who became Charles X. In 1825, Charles granted an indemnity to aristocrats whose lands had been taken away during the Revolution. The king pursued a religious policy which encouraged the Catholic Church to reestablish control over the French educational system. Liberal nespapers fed public outrage, which then forced the king to compromise in 1827 and accept the princple of ministerial responsibilty. This emant that the ministers of the king were responisble to the legislature. However, in 1829, he violated his commitment. A protest by the dupties led the king to dissolve the legislature in 1830 and call for new elections. Importance: Louis XVIII and Charles X brought in new ideas into French government, but ultimately led to France being on the brink of another revolution. Liberal and national movements in the German states seemed limited to professors and students from universities. They began to organize Burschenschaften, a.k.a. student societies who wanted to foster the ideal of a free, united Germany. Their ideas and their motto, "Honor, Liberty, Fatherland," were partially inspired by Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, who organized gymnastic societies during the Napoleonic wars to promote the regeneration of German youth. He urged Germans to go after their Germanic heritage and encouraged his followers to disrupt the lectures of professors whose views were not nationalistic. From 1817-1819, the Burschenschaften pursued several activities that aroused the government of Germany. At the Wartburg Castle in 1817, an assembly was held where they burned books written by conservative authors. This date also marked the 3 hundreth anniversary of Luther's 95 Theses. When a deranged student assassinated a reactionary playwright, Metternich had the diet of the Germanic Confederation draw up the Karlsbad Decrees of 1819. These closed the Burschenschaften, placed the universities under a close watch, and provided for censorship of the press. Importance: The Burschenschaften challenged the conservative status quo that dominated the German governments. In response to the Decembrist Revolt, Nicholas I changed from a conservative into a reactionary determined to avoid another rebellion. He strengthened the bureaucracy and the secret police, while the political police were given huge powers over much of Russian life. The political police were also known as the Third Section of the tsar's chancellery, who deported suspicious or dangerous people, maintained surveillance of foreigners in Russia, and reported regularly to the tsar on public opinion. While fearing revolution at home in Russia, Nicholas also feared revolution abroad. If he could help it, there would be no revolution in Russia during his reign, and none in any of the rest of Europe either. Contemporaries called him the Policeman of Europe because of his willingness to use Russian troops to crush revolutions. Importance: Tsar Nicholas I attempted to prevent rebellion in Russia through strengthening the government bureaucracy, increasing censorship, and suppressing individual freedom by the use of political police. Owen was a British cotton manufacturer who believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. He successfully changed the town of New Lanark in Scotland from a squalid factory town into a flourishing, healthy community. However, when he tried to make a self-contained cooperative community at New Harmy in Indiana in the 1820s, bicking within the community ultimately lead to his dream being crushed. Frances Wright, one of Owen's disciples, bought slaves in order to set up a model community at Nashoba, Tennessee, which, unfortunately failed, while Wright continued to work for women's rights. Importance: Owen's New Lanark was an idea brought up to fulfill the ideology of utopian socialism, which ultimately succeeded but could not be recreated In 1830, the forces of change began to undo the conservative domination of Europe. The July Revolution was caused by Charles's issue of a set of edicts known as the July Ordinances on Junly 26, 1830. This set of edicts imposed rigid censorship on the rpess, dissolved the legislative assembly and reduced the elctorate in prep for new elections. The reactionary Charles X was overthrown and replaced by the constitutional monarch Louis-Philippe, a liberal and former revolutionary solider. Constitutional changes that favored the interests of the upper bourgeoisie were instituted by this man, called the bourgeois monarch, since political support for his rule came from them. Financial qualifications for voting were reduced, but still remained sufficiently high. However, the number of voters increased oinly from 100,000 to just under 200,000, guaranteeing that only the wealthiest people could vote. Throughout society, including in the legislature, there were differences of opinion about the bourgeois monarchy and the direction it would take. Importance: France's July Revolution of 1830 was a result of the change of forces which began to break through the conservative domination of Europe. It ultimately led to a wave of revolutionary fervor which moved through Europe in 1848, causing liberals and nationalists everwhere to think that they were on the verge of creating a new order. In the legislature-the Chamber of Deputies-there was a differentiation of opinions about the bourgeois monarchy and the direction it would take. Two groups split from one another, composed of upper-middle-class reps. The Party of Movement, led by Adolphe Thiers, saw ministerial responsibility, the pursuit of an active foreign policy, and limited expansion of the franchise as beneficial factors to France, while the Party of Resistance, led by Francois Guizot, believed that France has finally reached the "perfect form" of gov and needed no further institutional changes. After 1840, the Party of Resistance dominated the Chamber of Deputies. Guizot cooperated with Louis-Philippe in suppressing ministerail responsibilty and pursuing a policy favoring the interests of the wealthier manufacturers and tradespeople. Importance: The Party of Resistance ultimately dominated the Chamber of Deputies, while the leader, Guizot, cooperated with Louis-Philippe in suppressing ministerail responsibilty and pursuing a policy favoring the interests of the wealthier manufacturers and tradespeople. An industrial and agricultural depression started in 1846 and brought hardship to the French lower middle class, workers, and peasants. As Louis-Philippe's gov still wouldn't make changes, opposition grew. Radical republicans and socialists, joined by the upper middle class agitated for the dismissal of Guizot, and useed the political banquet to call for reforms since it was illegal to stage political rallies. Despite Louis-Philippe proposing reform, he couldn't form another ministry and abdicated on February 24 and fled to Britain. A provisional government was established by a group of moderate and radical republicans, which ordered that reps for a constituent assembly convened to draw up a new constitution be elected by universal manhood suffrage. The revolutions of 1848 began in Paris, where revolutionary fervor fueled by liberalism and nationalism spread to the east and south. After initial successes, the revolutionaries failed to maintain unity: propertied classes feared the working masses, and nationalists such as the Hungarians disagreed with the fact that all national groups deserved self-determination. The old order rallied its troops and ended up on top. Importance: The revolutions of 1848 provided the spark for other countries, and led to most of central and Southern Europe having revolutions. The Frankfurt Assembly was comprised mostly of well-educated, articulate, middle-class delegates whom were mostly professors, lawyers, and bureaucrats. Many were ahead of their time in the sense of nationalism, and also had better governments than other German states. The assembly started with a controversy by claiming to be the government for Germany as a whole, which eventually got replaced by a debate regarding the composition of the new German state. Supporters of a Grossdeutsch ("Big German") solution were in favor of including the German province of Austria, while proponents of a Kleindeutsch ("Small German") solution wanted to exclude Austria and make the Prussian king the emperor of the new German state. The Austrians withdrew, therefore solving that problem, and left the field to the supporters of the Kleindeutsch solution. However, this victory was short-lived, as Frederick William IV refused the assembly's offer of the title of "emperor of the Germans" in March of 1849 and sent Prussian delegates home. Soon after this, the Frankfurt Assembly broke up. Despite some members speaking of using force, they had no real means of compelling the German rulers to accept the constitution they had drawn up. Importance: The attempt of the German liberals at Frankfurt to create a German state failed. The Austrian Empire had social, political, and nationalist grivances and only needed the news of the revolution in Paris to encourage the country to erupt into flames in March of 1848. The Hungarian liberals under Louis Kossuth fought for "commonwealth" status. They were willing to compromise and keep the Habsburg monarch, but they yearned for their own legislature. In March, demonsrations in Buda, Prague, and Vienna ended in Metternich's dismissal, and the archsymbol of the conservative order fled abroad. In Vienna, revolutionary forces took over the capital and forced a constituent assembly be brought about to draw up a liberal constitution. They were carefully guided by the educated and propertied classes. Hungary was granted its wish for its own legislature, a separate national army, and control over its foreign policy and budget. Allegiance to the Habsburg dynasty was now Hungary's only tie to the Austrain Empire. Importance: Kossuth led the Hungarian liberals in the revolution during March of 1848. Serjents were new police in France, who, in march of 1829, became visible on Parisian streets. Dressed in blue uniforms to distingiush them from citizens, the serjents were lightly armed with a white cane during the day and a saber at night. This udnerscored the fact that they were a civilian, not a military body. In the beginning, there weren't a lot. In August of 1829, there were only 85; in 1850, there were 500; by the end of the century, there were 4,000. The British relied on a system of unpaid constables, who were recruited by local authorities, rather than a pro police force. Many times, however, they were unable to keep order, prevent crime, or apprehend criminals, since such jobs could be dangerous and involve incidents. After these failures, between September 1829 and May 1830, 3,000 uniformed police officers appeared on the streets of London. They were known as the bobbies after Sir Robert Peel, who had introduced the legislation that created the force. The bobbies' primary goal was to prevent crime, but the municipal authorities soon found that the police were also useful for imposing order on working-class urban inhabitants. On Sundays, they were called to clean up after Saturday nigth's drinking bouts. However, as demands for better pay and treatment led to improved working conditions, British police began to develop a sense of professionalism. After the 1848 revolutions in Germany, a state-financed police system called the Schutzmannschaft was established for the city of Berlin. It was modeled after the London police, and began as a civilan body, but by 1851, it had become organized more along military lines and was used for political purposes. Its military nature was reinforced by the force's weaponry, which included swords, pistols, and brass knuckles. Importance: Serjents, "bobbies," and the Schutzmannschaft were all forms of police systems. Friedrich was a German painter, whose early life experiences left him with a lifelong preoccupation with God and nature. Friedrich painted landscapes with an interest that transcended the mere presentation of natural details. He portrayed mountains surrounded by mist, gnarled trees bathed in moonlights, and the stark ruins of monasteries surrounded by withered trees. All of his works conveyed a feeling of mystery and mysticism. For him, nautre was a manifestation of divine life, as seen in Man and Woman Gazing at the Moon, and the artistic process depnded on one's inner vision. Turner was an English artist who, like Friedrich, dwelt on nature and made landscape his major subject. Turner produced more than 20,000 paintings, drawings, and watercolors. His concern with nature transformed itself into innumerable landscapes and seascapes, sunrises and sunsets. He didn't idealize nature or reproduce it wihth realistic accuracy, however. Rather, he wanted to convey its moods by using an interplay of light and color to suggest natural effects. He anticipated the Impressionist painters of the second half of the nineteenth century, as he allowed the objects in his paintings to blend together and into their surroundings. Delacroix was the most famous French Romantic artist. He was interested in exotic things and had a passion for color. Both of these characteristics are evident in The Death of Sardanapalus. This particular painting stands out for its use of light and its patches of interrelated color, as this portrayal of the world of the last Assyrian king was criticized at the time for its garishness. Delacroix rejoiced in combining theatricality and movement with a daring use of color. Importance: Friedrich, Turner, and Delacroix were three Romantic artists, who abandoned classical restraint for warmth, emotion, and movement. Through these three painters, it is obvious that Romanticism influenced the visual arts. Beethoven singlehandedly transformed the art of music, since he wanted to communicate his cherished beliefs. During his first major period of composing between 1792 and 1800, his work was largely within the classical framework of the 18th century, and the influences of Haydn and Mozart are apparent. However, with the composition of the Third Symphony in 1804 (a.k.a. the Eroica), Beethoven broke thru the elements of Romanticism in his use of uncontrolled rhythms to create dramatic struggle and uplifted resolutions. Beethoven went on to write a plethora of works, but in the midst of this, he was more and more bothered by his growing deafness. One of the most moving pieces of music of all time, the chorale finale of his Ninth Symphony, was composed when Beethoven was totally deaf. Beethoven served as a bridge from the classical era to Romaticism, and after him came a number of musical geniuses who composed in the Romantic style. Berlioz was one of the most outstanding. He rebelled against his father's wish of him to study medicine, and believed he would be "no doctor or apothecary but a great composer." Berlijoz managed to fulfill his own expectations, and became famous in Germany, Russia, and Britain, although the originality of his work kept him from receiving much recognition in his native country of France. Berlioz was one of the founders of program music, which was an effort to use the moods and sound effects of instrumental music to depict the actions and emotions within a story, an event, or a personal experience. This development is shown in Berlioz's most famous piece, the first complete program symphony, the Symphone Fantastique. In this, Berlioz used music to bring about the passionate emotions of a tortured love affair, including a fifth movement in whihc he musically creates an opium-induced nightmare of a witches' gathering. Importance: Beethoven served as a bridge from the classical era to Romaticism, and after him came a number of musical geniuses who composed in the Romantic style. Berlioz was one of the most outstanding. With the Romantic era bringing about a newfound enthusiasm for religion, Catholicism was benefited. One of the most popular expressions of this Romantic revival of Catholicism is found in Chataeubriand's works. His Genius of Christianity, which was published in 1802, became known as the "Bible of Romanticism." He defended Catholicism based on Romantic sentiment, rather than history, logic, or rational grounds. As a faith, Catholicism echoed the harmony of all things, and its cathedrals brought one into the very presence of God, according to Chateaubriand. Importance: Chateaubriand's Genius of Christianity was an important asset to the revival of Catholicism that came with the Romantic era, and was known as the "Bible of Romanticism."