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APUSH Study Guide Period 4
Terms in this set (34)
Political party created in the 1790s. Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists favored a stronger national government. Supported primarily by the bankers and moneyed interests.
Political Party created in the 1790s. Led by Thomas Jefferson, the Democratic-Republicansfavored limited government and states rights. Supported primarily by the "common man."
Election of 1800 (Revolution of 1800)
Election that led to a peaceful transfer of power from the Federalist Party to the Democratic Republican Party.
Era of Good Feelings
The period from 1816-1824 characterized by nationalism and one-party control of the nation. The decline of the Federalist Party and the end of the War of 1812 gave rise to a time of political. cooperation.The Era of Good Feelings is associated with the presidency of James Monroe.
Political party that brought Andrew Jackson into office in 1829. Democrats supported Jeffersonian ideas of limited government, drawing its support from the "common man."
Federalist judges appointed by John Adams between the time he lost the election of 1800 and the time he left office in March 1801.
Appointed to the Supreme Court by John Adams in 1801, he served as chief justice until 1835. His legal decisions gave the Supreme Court more power, strengthened the federal government and protecting private property.
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
Supreme Court decision that declared a section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional and established the principle of judicial review.
The power of the Supreme Court to review the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress.
McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819
A Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States. In writing that the state of Maryland did not have the right to tax the federal bank, John Marshall wrote, "The power to tax is the power to destroy."
Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824
Supreme Court decision stating that the authority of Congress is absolute in matters of interstate commerce.
Embargo Act, 1807
In order to pressure Britain and France to accept neutral trading rights, Jefferson issued a government ordered ban on international trade. The Embargo went into effect in 1808 and closed down virtually all U.S. trade with foreign nations.
Panic of 1819
Financial panic that began when the Second Bank of the U.S. tightened credit and recalled government loans.
debates over the tariff and internal improvements
Northerners generally favored higher tariffs and internal improvement at federal expense. Southerners generally opposed higher tariffs and internal improvements at federal expense
southern defense of slavery
Southerners held a widespread belief that blacks were inferior to whites and that slavery was good for blacks. Southerners also understood that the southern cotton economy was dependent on slave labor.
Known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution," Slater brought British textile technology to the United States.
A method of factory management that evolved in the textile mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, which were owned by the Boston Manufacturing Company and named in honor of the company's founder, Francis Lowell. The Lowell system was the first example of a planned automated factory.
Parts that were identical and which could be substituted for one another. Developed by Eli Whitney for the manufacturing of muskets.
American System, 1815
Henry Clay's proposal to make the U.S. economically self-sufficient. The American System called for protective tariffs, internal improvements at federal expense, and the creation of a Second Bank of the United States.
Erie Canal, 1817-1825
A 350-mile canal built by the state of New York that stretched from Buffalo to Albany. The canal revolutionized shipping in New York.
National Road (Cumberland Road), 1811
First significant road built in the U.S. at the expense of the federal government. The road stretched from the Potomac River to the Ohio River.
Tariff of 1816
The first protective tariff in U.S. history. The tariff was designed primarily to help America's textile industry.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina political leader who defended slavery and advocated the doctrine of nullification, a policy in which a state could nullify federal law.
Political leader from Kentucky and leading member of the Whig Party who worked to keep the Union together through compromise.
Louisiana Purchase, 1803
The U.S. purchased the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, doubling the size of the U.S. and giving the U.S. full control of the Mississippi River.
Lewis and Clark expedition, 1804-1806
Expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark.
Members of Congress from the West and South elected in 1810 who wanted war with Britain in the hopes of annexing new territory and ending British trade with the Indians of the Northwest.
War of 1812, 1812-1815
War between the U.S. and Great Britain caused primarily by the British violation of American neutral rights on the high seas. The war ended with an agreement of "status quo ante" (a return to how things were before the war).
Adams-Onís Treaty, 1819
Treaty between the U.S. and Spain that ceded Florida to the U.S.
Monroe Doctrine, 1823
President Monroe's unilateral declaration that the Americas would be be closed to further European colonization. The doctrine also stated the U.S. would not allow European interference in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere.
Hartford Convention, 1814
Meeting of Federalists during the War of 1812 in which anti-war Federalists threatened to secede from the Union. The convention was generally viewed by some as treasonous and the Federalist Party began to die out.
Shawnee leader who established an Indian confederacy that he hoped would be a barrier to white expansion. Defeated at he Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811 by U.S. forces led by General William Henry Harrison.
Talmadge Amendement, 1819
An amendment to a statehood bill for Missouri that would have banned slavery from Missouri. The amendment created a deadlock in Congress that led to the Missouri Compromise.
Missouri Compromise, 1820
Law proposed by Henry Clay admitting Missouri to the U.S. as a slave state and Maine as a free state. The law also banned slavery in the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36º30′
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