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Arts and Humanities
Public speaking #9
Terms in this set (15)
The main part of a speech. The body falls after the introduction and before the
conclusion and includes all the main points and the material that supports them.
A key idea that supports a thesis and helps an audience understand and
remember what is most important about a speaker's topic. Main points are
supported by subpoints.
(supporting points) The examples, definitions, testimony,
statistics, narratives, and analogies that support or illustrate a speaker's main
The act of making one thing secondary to another thing. This principle
of speech outlining dictates the hierarchy in the relationship of main points and
supporting materials. Each subpoint must support its corresponding main point,
and each sub-subpoint must support its corresponding subpoint. In an outline,
supporting points are written below and to the right of the point they support. See
also subpoint and sub-subpoint.
An idea that is gathered from brainstorming and research that explains,
proves, and expands on a speech's main points.
An idea that is gathered from brainstorming or research that explains,
proves, and expands on a speech's subpoints.
The connection of two or more ideas of equal weight and importance.
In a well-organized speech, all points at the same level share the same level of
significance. Each main point is coordinate with the other main points, each
subpoint with other subpoints, and each sub-subpoint with other sub-subpoints.
A model for speech organization in which the main points represent
important aspects of a topic and are thought of as adjacent to one another in
location or geography. A speaker who is discussing historical sites in a state's
three largest cities might use a spatial pattern of organization.
chronological (temporal) pattern
A model for speech organization in which the
speaker presents information in the order that events occurred, with each main
point addressing a particular time within the chronology.
A model for speech organization pattern that explains cause-and
effect relationships in which each main point is either an event that leads to a
situation or a link in a chain of events between a catalyst and a final outcome.
A model for speech organization that discusses the similarities
and differences between two events, objects, or situations. This pattern is
especially useful when comparing a new subject to one that is known to the
categorical (topical) pattern
A model for speech organization in which each main
point emphasizes one of the most important aspects of the speaker's topic. This
pattern often is used when a speaker's topic does not easily conform to the other
speech organization patterns—spatial, temporal, causal, comparison, problem
cause-solution, criteria-application, or narrative.
A sentence that smoothly connects one idea or part of a speech to another.
signpost A word or phrase within a sentence that informs the audience about the
direction and organization of a speech.
A short list of ideas that quickly summarizes points that will follow.
Using an internal preview gives the audience an advance warning of what is to
A quick review of what has just been said in a speech's main
point or subpoint. It is used to help an audience remember a particularly detailed
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