NEW History and Systems MIDTERM Study Guide
Terms in this set (90)
What is personalistic vs. naturalistic theory in approaching the history of psychology?
Personalistic theory: the view that progress and change in our scientific history is due to the ideas of unique individuals
Naturalistic theory: the view that progress and change in our scientific history is due to the Zeitgeist (makes culture receptive to some ideas, but not others)
Be familiar with the differences between the "New History" approach to the history of science versus a more traditional approach
New history approach to the history of science:
Scientists work in a subjective manner under the influence of external or "extra scientific" factors
More traditional approach to the history of science:
Scientists are objective fact finders and neutral observers
Simply the history of ideas
The study of the "great white man"
What are "schools of thought" in psychology? How does Hunt distinguish between "the era of schools" in the first half of the 1900s and the direction in which the discipline of psychology moved in the last half of that century?
School of thought: when a group of psychologists comes together because they have similar ideologies (sometimes they come together geographically)
They usually share a theoretical or systematic orientation and investigate similar problems
Big characteristic of psychology: how certain schools of thought develop and decline and get replaced by other schools
There were at least 7 in the early 1930s and the adherents of each claimed that their school's theory could make a coherent science out of the chaotic mass of findings and mini-theories that had been accumulating since the time of Helmholtz. By the end of the 1900s, the field of psychology had burst apart and became a number of autonomous fields of specialization. By 1990, APA had recognized 58 fields of psychology and had 45 "divisions"representing those fields.
What happened to Greek philosophy of mind in the Middle Ages? What was the primary source of knowledge during this period of history?
o Greek mindset died when the Greek civilization died
o Aristotle's work was discovered in 700 AD by Arabs
o Aquinas takes on Aristotle's views as truth in the Middle Ages
o A bunch of religions arise in the Middle Ages and Greek philosophy was forgotten
o All sources of knowledge were religious (AKA authoritarianism)
o Psychology is not a thing for the next 1000 years
What was The Renaissance? What ideas about knowledge and the sources of knowledge arose during the Renaissance?
o The Renaissance was from 1400 to 1600
o A lot changed with regard to sources of knowledge
o They shifted away from religion and toward empiricism
o A lot of changes (socially, politically, economically, geographically) (AKA expansion)
o Individualism became a thing (your status was not longer determined at birth)
o Psychology came around again, but it was really philosophical
Questions how knowledge is learned (not religion anymore)
Positivism: Says we can learn stuff based on natural phenomena or objective facts
Questions if we come up with our own ideas or if they just come from experiences (nativism vs empiricism and rationalism vs empiricism)
These ideas set the stage for operationalism, objectivity, and the scientific method
This is about how one idea can bring about another idea
3 laws of association:
Continuity: one idea brings about another because they were both previously experienced
Similarity: one idea brings about another because they are similar
Contrast: one idea brings about another because they contrast each other
Says that living things can be defined mechanically
So mental processes can be explained physically
Physiologists are interested in sensation and how we observe the world
scientific trend - discoveries regarding the physical structure of the human body, including the nervous system and localization of function in the brain. Physiologists became more interested in the study of sensation, and the human sense organs, upon which our observations of the world are based.
Scientific trend - emphasis on describing and representing one's observations numerically and statistically
Scientific trend, discoveries in the science of biology, especially Darwin's theory of evolution, with its laws of variation and adaptation that applied of both animals and humans
Scientific trend: This is when you are searching for the most basic elements of matter
Used in physics and chemistry
This was then applied to mental phenomena
Establishment of laboratories
1800s: They established a lot of research and training labs (especially in chemistry)
They adhered to a particular line of experimental studies of a particular school of thought
Often in universities with a bunch of different kinds of people
When you reduce all existence to a common denominator in order to explain complex things
Everything (event, act) is caused by the past
The human body is a physical machine, but humans also possess a mind that is non-physical
Mind and body are distinct, but exert mutual influence on one another - and the locus of this interaction is the brain
-Mind carries out thought and other cognitive processes; body performs functions
-Mind is characterized by certain innate ideas; other derived ideas come from sensory experience
All ideas come from experience or reflection, no ideas are innate
This says that we know the external world because of our senses
There is an emphasis on observation of mental phenomena
Says natural processes are determined mechanically
Can also be explained by the laws of physics and chemistry
These are machines that mimic animal and human actions
Babbage's difference machine
This was a machine that could perform "mental" functions (math, games)
Early developments in statistics
Developed the "normal curve distribution" equation in the early 1800s to described variability or measurement errors
Sir Francis Galton
Made the "regression equation" and the concept of "correlation"
These were later refined by Pearson
The study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features
Study of sensation
The area of physiology associated with sensation
Vision, hearing, touch, smell
This propelled interests in psychological issues and processes
Studied the brain and language (Broca and Wenicke)
Bassel's notion of the individual differences among observers emphasized the importance of our sensory organs, upon which our observations of the world are based
Interests in peripheral sensory receptors → reflexes, the spinal cord and nervous system → the brain
Study of the neuron
Mapping of the structure of the nervous system and identification of the neuron as the basic structural unit of the nervous system - which was very consistent with the prevailing reductionist, mechanistic view points
The study of the relationship between mental (psycho) and material world (physics)
Uses quantitative and experimental methods
Viewed this as an experimental to study mind and body
Used quantitative measures of the relationship between the intensity of a physical stimulus and the intensity of a resulting sensation (AKA a subjective experience)
Localization of function and methods used to experimentally study this
Localization of function was studied in a bunch of different ways:
Extirpation methods: removing/destroying a part of the brain to see how function and behavior change
Used by Flourens and Hall
Clinical methods: examining the dead brain of a person who had a behavioral condition
Broca used this
Electrical stimulation methods: Giving someone weak electrical stimulation on the cerebral cortex and observing their motor functioning
This led to the discovery of contralateral representation (functions on right side of body are represented on left side of brain, vice versa)
Done by Fritsch and Hitzig in 1870
Cranioscopy: Looking at the brain shape and size by examining the skull
Done by Gall
All these studies in combination with experimental methods set the stage for the "experimental study of the mind"
Came up with "Mind-Body Dualism"
Said our bodies are mechanical
Body movements can be reflexive or involuntary (AKA "reflex action theory")
Said mind and body are 2 different things but they influence each other
Said the brain controls both
Said the mind controls thoughts and cognitive processes
Characterized by certain innate ideas
Other ideas come from sensory experiences
Said the body performs all other functions
Said all of our ideas come from experience and reflection
Said we don't have any innate ideas
Our mind is a blank slate
Said we learn everything through sensory experiences
"Primary and Secondary Qualities of Perceptions"
Primary: Characteristics of objects in the external world
Secondary: Qualities "aroused" by the objects in the external world—these qualities are "in us"
Said "ideas" are fundamental units of our minds
These are linked together to form "complex ideas" via learning (AKA the "principle of association")
Contributed to the ideas of structuralism
He emphasized the content of the mind
Focused on a "common sense philosophy" of mind
Talked about Scottish Realism (Asserts that the external world is directly knowable via the senses - with resulting emphasis upon the observation of mental phenomenon)
In the late 1700s he said nerve impulses are electrical
This became really accepted by the mid 1800s
Herman von Helmholtz
Was the first to measure the speed of neural impulses
They do like 90 feet per second
He did a lot of studies on vision and hearing
Gustav Theodore Fechner
He did a lot with psychophysics
Viewed this as an experimental to study mind and body
Used quantitative measures of the relationship between the intensity of a physical stimulus and the intensity of a resulting sensation (AKA a subjective experience)
When you measure someone's head to understand their personality, abilities, and intelligence
This practice was based on Gall's theory of "localization of function"
The idea that overdeveloped parts of the brain were bigger and underdeveloped parts were physically smaller (causing an indention)
He identified 35 mental functions
He told clients who to strengthen the underdeveloped areas and tone down the overdeveloped areas
Orson and Lorenzo Fowler
Commercialized it in the 1830s by making a bunch of clinics, products, and trainings for it
The evaluation of someone's character, intellect, and abilities based on their face (mostly eyes, nose, chin, and forehead)
This came before phrenology
Not really that popular
Lombroso applied this to criminology
Made the idea of a "criminal type" face
Used to "validate" ethnic and racial stereotypes and prejudices
So did phrenology
Developed by Mesmer
Supposedly solved people's medical and psychological problems by waving magnets over them
AKA animal magnetism
The idea was that humors (bodily fluids) needed to be realigned
People got kind of faint/hypnotized after treatment
He was super popular in Paris
Told everyone that his practice was science-based even though a formal review said it was crap
He could still practice after this
It came to US in 1830s except it was more hypnosis and used some religious techniques
The idea that mediums could perform seances with unseen spirits and energies
These were done to treat depression, marriage problems, etc.
It was mostly used to talk to the dead
This was super rejected by early American psychologists and Christianity
Except James was really into it
Quimby promoted this
AKA "mind cure" or "new thought" movement
Rooted in mesmerism
He said a lot of diseases were purely mental and that other diseases were just exacerbated by mental problems
He hated physicians
He wanted everyone to see that being irrational and thinking negatively affects your health
The "mind cure movement" was pretty much over by 1900 but it was the foundation for Christian Science and the Emmanuel Movement
What is Wilhelm Wundt's place in the history of psychology?
Founded "experimental psychology" or psychology as a science
He was the first scientists of psychology that wasn't a physiologist, physicist, or philosopher
Said mental processes could be studied experimentally
He focused on "conscious mental processes"
Mainly looked at sensation, reaction time, and their association
First experimental study was done in 1879
What are the main ways that Wundt impacted psychology?
His lab in Leipzig became the center of "new psychology"
This was systematic and experimental
A lot of German university people didn't like the idea of separating psychology and philosophy
People said his studies didn't have any real world application
His method of introspection was criticized because of inter-rater reliability issues
He supported Germany between WWI and WWII even though a lot of Europe and the US hated Germany
He had a lot of big name students
Some new schools of experimental psychology emerged as a result of his restrictive approach to experimental psychology
Said higher mental processes could be studied through experimental psychology
He's not a big deal outside of academic psychology
What kinds of psychological phenomena did Wundt and his students study experimentally?
They looked at conscious mental processes like sensation, reaction time, association
What is introspection?
Developed by Wundt
Focusing your attention on one perception and feeling in response to a stimulus
This requires a lot of training
He examined people's mental state (AKA "immediate conscious experience") not the person's interpretation of their experience
What is Wundt's notion of psychic causality?
Developed by Wundt
Said that mental events are just as real as physical events
Did a lot of early work with memory and learning (which was a big deal at the time)
He studied himself (so he was the researcher and the participant)
He controlled for confounding variables
Examined memory by creating "nonsense syllables"
"The forgetting curve": the idea that most forgetting happens right after we learn it
The idea that the length of a series of nonsense syllables affects how many times you need to hear it to memorize it
This idea is not linear
Used the "mastery" technique
The "savings" technique helps you relearn previously memorized material easier
All these findings made up his book Studies in Memory
After he published this, he didn't really do much
Said all mental events (AKA mental acts) are directed toward some outside object
Ex: remembering something, sensing something, loving or hating something
Said psychology should study the "actions" of consciousness
"The Act of School Psychology" was a precursor to functionalism
McDougall translated "Akt" to "behavior"
Thus, psychology is the study of behavior
Ideas were phenomenological
Said psychology should be empirical (based on observation) and NOT exclusively experimental
This was different than the popular physiology ideas at the time
Talked a lot about crucial experiments
AKA those that address "big questions" by looking at 2 incompatible conceptions of mental processes
Said systematic experiments (AKA those where you routinely change an IV and look at the DV) were dumb
Said complex mental processes actually could be studied (Wundt thought they couldn't)
He said thinking can be "imageless" (AKA nonsensory) (Wundt thought all thought was made up of sensations and images)
Thus, thought processes could be studied directly (not just sensory experiences)
In his studies: the participants introspected about their cognitive processes (what was going on in their mind) while doing a task
He developed the concept of "mental set" (AKA Einstellung): This said that people incorporate instructions they receive for tasks but they don't utilize the instructions consciously when doing the tasks
What was the main focus of Titchener's approach to experimental psychology?
Focused on structure and content of the mind
Used introspection in a manualized way
What were Titchener's main contributions to psychology in the United States?
Structure of consciousness:
-1. Identify it's elements (ANALYSIS)
-2. How do these elements become grouped? (SYNTHESIS)
-3. How did they group this way? (EXPLANATION)
He wanted to make a periodic table of mental elements
Developed Scientific Attitude toward psychology
Played critical role in psychology becoming a SCIENCE in US
Distinguished science and application (science of psychology must be kept pure)
A lot of new psychologists rejected these ideas because they thought it was too narrowly focused and restrictive
What happened to structuralism?
"New psychologists" in the U.S. rejected structuralism as too narrowly focused and methodologically restrictive
These ideas mainly died with Titchner in 1927
Kind of came back in the 1960s with cognitive psychology
What is William James' place in the history of psychology? What are his main contributions to psychology?
People call him the first real US psychologist
Except he was more of a philosopher and writer, not really an experimenter
He also said he was a philosopher
Published 2 books as part of a set
Principles of Psychology in 1890
Super popular in the first half of the 20th century
In the books he reviewed German psychology
Used it to create his own ideas
More interested in process, NOT content
This was the early functionalism in his work
Developed "pragmatism": if you cant find an answer through reason or observation, then truth is what works (what works best until something better comes along) this is a philosophical position on how we know things about the world. This was really influential in the US.
He had American psychological views
How did James' approach to the study of psychology differ from that of Wundt?
His approach to psychology—with its richness, realism and pragmatism—had a lasting influence on psychology, even though the Wundtian school had greater influence on experimental methods
James practiced a naturalistic kind of introspection (unlike Wundt)
James looked at "immediate retrospection": observing someone's conscious thoughts as they occur naturally
AKA looking back on what someone just consciously experienced
Wundt was more limited in what he thought about experimental psychology could do
James was more broad
What was James' view on determinism in regard to mental phenomena and behavior?
Said "will" directs our voluntary movement
Said "will" is based on information and experiences about our ability to achieve stuff
Disagreed with total determinism
This is reflective of pragmaticism
Stream of consciousness
Said consciousness is a process (AKA function)
Our ability to consider the past, present, and future allows us to plan ahead and adapt to the environment (survival function)
Said psychology should focus on introspection of complex thought
AKA "rote learning"
Said this is a critical for human psychology and society
Said repeated activity produces a neural "pathway" in the brain (not true)
This set the stage for the focus on rote learning that became big in US psychology
Says that how we perceive a situation leads to a certain bodily state
Awareness of this state IS the emotion we experience
What are the main tenets of Darwin's theory of evolution?
Said variation occurs naturally within species
Those who are best suited for the environment survive, others are eliminated
Those who survive pass those good genes to offspring
Their offspring all have variability and the ongoing process of natural selection continues
How did Darwin's theory of evolution impact psychology in the U.S.?
Increased focus on animal psychology
New emphasis on the functions of consciousness, rather than its structure
Acceptance f methodologies and data from many fields of study - which broadened the kinds of data that psychologists could collect
New focus on the description and measurement of individual differences
Be familiar with the main tenets of Social Darwinism
Made popular by Spencer
Said all aspects of the universe are evolutionary
Coined the phrase "survival of the fittest"
His Utopian view of humanity: Only the best will survive, which would lead to human perfection
So people and institutions that couldn't adapt were done
Said the government assistantships will disrupt this (like helping the poor)
Shultz and Shultz said this aligns with the American value of working hard and self-sufficiency and independence from government regulation
How did the study of animal psychology play a role in the early days of psychology in the U.S.?
Darwin's work suggested no strict distinction between human minds and animal minds
This prompted interest in looking at intelligence in animals
British, published first book on comparative psychology
Used the "anecdotal method" and "introspection by analogy" to conclude things about animal intelligence
Developed "law of parsimony" (AKA Morgan's Canon): Don't interpret animal behavior as higher order if it can be explained by a lower order phenomenon
Said most animal behavior was a result of learning or association based on sensory experience (lower level processes)
What was the primary emphasis of the functionalist approach to psychology?
The main question is: What does the mind do?
There is an emphasis on examining the "adaptive functions" of the mind of an organism
What the mind is "for" not what it "is"
How did functionalism differ from structuralism?
Focuses on the adaptive functions of the time
Focused with the mind as it is used in our adaptation to our environment
Looks at how the mind functions or how it is used by us
The big question: What do mental processes accomplish?
Focuses on identifying the structure of consciousness, by identifying elements
Dealt with conscious experience as dependent on the person experiencing it
What are the main contributions of the functionalist school?
They had a broad range of interests and research practices
They looked at Wundtian introspective studies, animal behavior, used questionnaires, experimental manipulation of IV and DV
Interested in mental testing, child study movement, personality, child psychology, abnormal psychology
They emphasized the study of learning
Said consciousness (and later behavior) facilitate adaptation, which occurs through learning
They were open to applied psychology
They did not have the emphasis on pragmatism (supported by James and Dewey)
They promoted taking psychology into the real world
What happened to functionalism?
It died when behaviorism became popular in 1913
Galton said individual greatness occurred within families too often to be explained just by environmental factors
Law of effect
If we are rewarded, we will keep doing it (opposite with punishment)
The psychological experiment (per Woodworth)
Defined the psychological experiments
Looked at the IV and DV (made the distinction between experiments and correlational studies)
His impact on psychology:
Increased everyone's focus on animal psychology
One of the first to emphasize FUNCTIONS of consciousness (not structure)
Accepted methodologies and data from a lot of different fields
This expanded the kind of data psychologists collected
One of the first to focus on individual differences
His big book was Hereditary Genius (1869)
His major contributions:
Said specific forms of genius are inherited
So if you're famous, your child will be famous
He said this is not due to opportunity
We wanted to encourage the birth of more "fit" people
Introduced eugenics: idea that human race can be improved by artificial selection (AKA selective breeding)
Said human characteristics are normally distributed and can be examined by the mean and SD
Developed correlational studies based on his idea of the regression to the mean
His student, Pearson, developed correlation coefficient (r)
Said intelligence can be measured based on people's sensory capacities
Developed "anthropometric tests" in which he used an apparatus to measure 9,000 people's sensory capacities
Association of ideas: developed reaction time study (time it takes to produce associations)
This increased interest of unconscious thought processes
Used the psychological questionnaire: Had subjects report their mental images in conducting a task
"Learning by doing"
Thinking happens when we are trying to figure out how to do something
Edward L. Thorndike
Mechanical view of learning
-In new situations, we start off doing things wrong but that is phased out when we start to learn what we are supposed to do
Law of Effect
-If we are rewarded, we will keep doing it (opposite with punishment)
Robert Sessions Woodworth
Said he wasn't a functionalist (but he was)
Focused on motivation and cause-and-effect relationships
Looked at "how" and "why" we do stuff
Defined psychological experiments as having manipulated IV and a DV
Distinction between experiments and correlational studies
Be familiar with factors that influenced the rise of applied psychology in the U.S.
It rose because of functionalists William James and John Dewey who said psychology should be applied to the broader human condition
Changes is American society
Americans switched from rural to more urban and industrial (this caused a demand in more manufactured goods)
Child labor laws and compulsory education for kids was introduced
A lot of immigrants came to the US
Workforce issues and barriers in the emerging field of psychology
Psychologists who worked in labs and as faculty needed more income
Women were being trained as psychologists (but still couldn't be faculty)
The role of psychologists in WWI
Psychologists were the ones testing recruits for the military using the Army Alpha and Army Beta tests of intelligence
The war pushed a lot of academic psychologists into applied roles (still viewed as successful)
What were the main contributions of G. Stanley Hall and James McKeen Cattell to the professionalization of psychology in the U.S.?
G. Stanley Hall
Studied with Wundt, and they founded the first psychology lab in 1883
Started the first psychology journal in US in 1883 called the American Journal of Psychology
Influential figure in the Child Study Movement in the late 1800s
Applied a lot of Darwin's ideas to child development
Helped develop APA in 1892
James McKeen Cattell
Studied with Wundt
Influenced by Galton
Made a research lab that focused on mental testing (based on Galton's anthropometric tests)
Became the editor for a US journal called Science in 1894
Used this position to publish psychology studies
Played a big role in introducing psychology to the science world and lay public
What was the Child Study Movement?
Organized by G. Stanley Hall
He talked about it in a speech he did for National Education Association (NEA) (applied psychology to education)
He applied science to education (increased study of kids)
Did a lot of research using questionnaires (gathering broad data with no theory)
Movement did a lot for school and educational psychology
Be familiar with some of the main areas to which psychology was applied in the early part of the 20th century in the U.S.
In the 20th century, American psychology was all about intelligence and personality testing
Intelligence tests were used a lot and influenced by Binet
Goddard did a lot with intellectual disabled kids
Terman did a lot with gifted kids
Witmer established a psychological clinic in 1896
Arguably the first clinic like this ever
Focused on assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of kids with a "multidisciplinary" approach
He outlined a program of education to train psychologists to do clinical work (called clinical psychology)
Psychology in advertising, business, and industry
Psychologists were consultants for advertising, consumerism, and human factors
These would later be known as IO psychologists
This emerged as an applied area of psychology
Precursor for counseling psychology
Hugo Munsterberg and William James were consulted for a murder trial in 1908
They wrote letters to defend the intellectually disabled man who confessed to murder
Munsterberg wrote a book about how to apply psychology to law
Called On the Witness Stand
Talked about accuracy of memory and the validity of eye-witness testimony
Be familiar with the defining features of a profession (per Benjamin, 2014)
Specialized knowledge (acquired through intensive training)
Publication of professional journals
Service to the public
High standards of practice (code of ethics)
Need for certification or licensure with a defined scope of practice
Continuing education requirements
National, regional, and local professional organizations
(GET MORE INFO) Be familiar with the history of the American Psychological Association—especially regarding the tensions between science and practice
It started in 1892
Clinical psychology became really big in APA, so a lot of research-oriented groups broke away from APA to join the Association for Psychological Science (now called American Psychological Society) to focus on the science and research side of psychology
What was Lightner Witmer's contribution to clinical psychology?
First to launch a psychological clinic in the US and probably the world (This was the start of clinical and school psychology)
Usually worked with kids who had behavioral or learning problems
Used an interdisciplinary approach to assessment and treatment
Understood that life's difficulties are often the result of cognitive and behavioral problems and that psychological science should have the means to fix those problems
Developed innovative treatments for clients
(GET MORE INFO) How were mental disorders treated before psychology became involved?
Mental disorders were basically considered physiological
How was emerging interest in clinical psychology received by (1) psychiatrists and (2) the American Psychological Association (APA) in the early 1900s?
They wanted to end clinical psychology in 1917.
Were willing for psychologists
to apply their assessment skills in the areas of education and in industry, but psychiatrists were adamantly opposed to clinical work
The APA was originally approached to certify PsyD programs and they said no because they said psychology should be a science.
They kind of split: One side argued for bringing the group into the fold of APA, the other side argued that the goals of American Association of Clinical Psychologists (AACP) did not fit with APA's goals
What was the main focus of clinical psychology between World War I and World War II? How did that change during and after World War II?
Mostly just administered and scored tests, some interpretation
Then projectives/personality tests came into play (like the Rorschach)
The focus then shifted to shell shock treatment
What role did the VA and the U.S. Public Health Service play in the history of clinical psychology?
Clinical psychologists started working at VAs
The federal government called on the VA and USPHS to expand the pool of MH professionals (AKA clinical psychologists)
They encouraged doctoral programs in clinical psychology
APA supported doctoral programs involved in clinical training to enhance their programs (funding was provided to these programs)
What was the purpose of the Boulder Conference in 1949? What were the main features of the training model that emerged from that conference?
Scientist-practitioner model (Boulder model)
They needed an agreed-upon training model for clinical psychology
Main features of the new training model:
core clinical skills
practicum work (in multiple settings)
1 year internship
mandated research training and a research dissertation
This became the dominant model of training
(GET MORE INFO) Be familiar with the ongoing conflict between the science of psychology and the profession of psychology.
Psych profession started out as testing, but APA said no we're a science
We were initially called consulting psychologists
Consulting and Clinical began being used interchangeable
Then the scientist-practitioner model came to be
Originally we treated "shell-shock" (AKA PTSD)
(GET MORE INFO) What was the outcome of the Boulder Conference in 1949? How did views regarding the appropriate training model for clinical psychologists shift in work leading to the Boulder Conference?
Psychology gave public support for the scientist-practitioner model of training in clinical psychology
What was the outcome of the Vail Conference in 1973?
Legitimizing the "scholar‐practitioner" model of professional training in psychology
What issue within APA led to the emergence of the American Psychological Society (APS) in 1988?
By the 1970s, practitioners (clinical psychologists) gained a lot of power in APA
The academic and science issues were ignored, and they fought for it to be more balanced between scientists and practitioners
But practitioners weren't sharing the power, so APS was born for the advancement of scientific psychology in research, teaching, application, and improvement of human welfare
McFall founded the Academy of Psychological Clinical Science in 1994. What are his primary recommendations for training clinical psychologists in the future? What does he say about the role of practitioner training in these recommendations?
The preeminent goal of all doctoral training in clinical psychology should be to train research scientists
The role of practitioner training
Clinical science programs should not emphasize practitioner training, worry about students' accumulation of supervised clinical hours, or allow the program's content and structure to be driven by accreditation and licensing requirements that interfere with the program's primary goals.
This does not mean that clinical science programs should provide no training in clinical assessment and intervention. Rather, the design of such training (as with all the training) should be dictated entirely by its intended purposes, not by traditions and myths.
Be familiar with each of the following training models for clinical psychologists: scientist-practitioner, practitioner-scholar, and clinical scientist.
Scientist-practitioner: More research and academics. Trained professional psychologists should be knowledgeable in both research and clinical practice. Emphasis should be placed on the successful integration of science and practice
Practitioner-scholar: Clinical work. Focus on practical application of scholarly knowledge.
Clinical Scientist: The "call to action" for clinical scientists appeared in 1991, in the "Manifesto for a Science of Clinical Psychology" (McFall, 1991). Training practitioners is not the goal. Training research scientists is the goal.
How has APA recently redesignated training programs in professional psychology through their accreditation standards?
In 2017, APA made their accreditation requirements more strict and designated clinical psychology as health service psychology
APA emphasized that clinical psychologists need to be health care professionals
More focus on the integration of research into clinical practice
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